Pharmaceutical Chemistry And Technology

Academic program

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Course TESI (PROVA FINALE)
Course ID F0421
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2013/2014
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
CFU 30
Individual study time 750
SSD PROFIN_S -
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category E
Year 5
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
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Course TIROCINIO PROFESSIONALE
Course ID F0068
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2013/2014
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
CFU 30
Individual study time 900
SSD NN -
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category S
Year 5
Period Annuale
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
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Course STATISTICA CON R
Course ID F0592
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2013/2014
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader RINALDI Maurizio
Teachers Rinaldi Maurizio
CFU 2
Individual study time 26
SSD MAT/04 - MATEMATICHE COMPLEMENTARI
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 5
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student is expected -to be able to explain the knowledge acquired also in multidisciplinary field and therefore know how to analyze data and create professional graphic representations. - to be able to apply the methods learned even in different situations and if required have the tools to extend his knowledge in an autonomous way. - to acquire the ability to express the results of a data analysis both at a numerical and graphic level. - to acquire the ability to study and learn by choosing his path with originality and must be able to choose resources, possibly even online, useful for his study.
Contenuti The R software and its use to represent data and for statistical data analysis.
Testi di riferimento Reference material is posted on the DIR website
Obiettivi formativi *Knowledge and understanding The course aims to enrich the theoretical knowledge of statistics and probability with appropriate calculation data analysis. Aims of the course is also to display the results. The course in based on the free and open source software R. *Applying knowledge and understanding Students should be able to use the acquired skills even in multidisciplinary context and they should be able to analyse data and generate professional graphical representations. *Making judgements. At the end of the course students are expected to apply R even in different situations and that they have acquired the tools needed to extend their knowledge by themselves. * Communication skills At the end of the course students are expected to be able to express their results both numerically and graphically. * Learning skills. During the course students should learn how to study by choosing their personal path and should become able to choose the appropriate resources.
Prerequisiti The student should have the basic knowledge of mathematics and statistics
Metodi didattici Practical lectures are given in the computer lab.
Altre informazioni Reference material and additional informations are posted on the DIR website https://www.dir.uniupo.it/enrol/index.php?id=219
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Ongoing Quizzes and online Final Examination. Both count toward the final grade in a ratio 3/7.
Programma esteso R software. Elementary operations. Functions and graphs. Import, export in R. Data Structures, packages. Matrices, lists, arrays. The data frame. Working with sata: selecting elements, logical operators. Loops and conditionals. Missing data. Additional graphics packages: ggplot2. Regression line and regression curves. Anova. Pharmacokinetic models. Clustering. Simulations.
Course borrowed from FARMACIA (1506) - FA0078 Statistica con R - NOVARA
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Course Politiche farmaceutiche
Course ID FA0063
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2013/2014
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader DE ROSA MAURO
Teachers De Rosa Mauro
CFU 3
Teaching duration (hours) 24
Individual study time 51
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 5
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Course borrowed from FARMACIA (1506) - FA0063 Politiche farmaceutiche - NOVARA
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Course Metodologie sintentiche avanzate
Course ID FA0056
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2013/2014
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PANZA Luigi
Teachers Panza Luigi
CFU 2
Teaching duration (hours) 16
Individual study time 34
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 5
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Students are expected to acquire knowledge of modern methods and synthesis strategies. They must also demonstrate that they are able to use the knowledge and skills acquired to critically evaluate literary work on total synthesis of complex molecules.
Contenuti Protecting groups Organoboron compounds Organosilicon compounds Organotin compounds Modern synthetic strategies
Testi di riferimento Slides provided by the teacher with references to chemical literature and to advanced books.
Obiettivi formativi Provide students with the knowledge of modern synthesis techniques to supplement the curricular preparation. Introduce students to the principles of modern organic synthesis and to their use
Prerequisiti Knowledge of the structure and of the reactivity of the main classes of organic compounds
Metodi didattici Lectures with multimedia support. Discussion of examples of total synthesis and exercises.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Oral exam based on the critical analysis of a literature article on the synthesis of complex molecules.
Programma esteso Protecting Groups: Introduction to the use of protecting groups in organic synthesis. Protecting groups for the main functional groups: introduction and removal. Orthogonality of protecting groups. Organoboron compounds: Introduction to the element. Boranes and their use in synthesis: alkyl, alchenyl- and alkinylborani. Preparation and reactivity. Outline of boronic acids and their use in cross coupling reactions. Outline of boron cluster. Organosilicon compounds: Introduction to the element. Silicones. Silyl enol ethers, vinylsilanes, epoxysilanes, allylsilanes and their use in organic synthesis. -Silyl carbanions. Trimethylsilyl cyanide. Trimethylsilyl triflate. Trimethylsilyl iodide. Organotin compounds. Introduction to the element. Stannilethers and acetals. Vinyl and allyl stannanes and their use in organic synthesis. Hydrides of tin. Alkynyl stannanes. Modern synthetic strategies. A brief history of organic synthesis. Retrosynthesis: definitions of concepts of synthons, retrons, disconnections, transformations. Retrosynthetic analysis. Guidelines for the application of the different strategies used in the retrosynthetic analysis: strategies based on structure, functional groups or processes. Examples of total synthesis.
Course borrowed from CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0056 Metodologie sintentiche avanzate - NOVARA
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Course Chimica degli isoprenoidi bioattivi
Course ID FA0237
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2013/2014
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader APPENDINO Giovanni Battista
Teachers Appendino Giovanni Battista
CFU 2
Teaching duration (hours) 16
Individual study time 34
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 5
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Improvement of the familiarity with structural and synthetic organic chemistry applied to the solution of biogenetic problems
Contenuti 1.Isoprenoid biosynthesis 2. Isoprenoids of medicinal relevance: menthol, artemisinine, taxol, progesterone
Testi di riferimento P,M. Dewick: Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, 3rd Edition, Wiley
Obiettivi formativi Highoight the biomedical relevance of isoprenoids
Prerequisiti Familiarity with organic chemistry (Advanced Organic Chemistry Level)
Metodi didattici Lessons
Altre informazioni None
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento MCQ on the main topic of the course (see detailed program)
Programma esteso 1. The biosynthesis of isoprenoids 1a;The mevallopnate pathway 1b: The methylerythritol phosphate pathway 1c. Integration of the isoprenoid pathway into the photosynthetic process. 2. Case histories 2a menthol 2b artemisinine 2c taxol 2d cortisone
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Course Aspetti tecnologici e normativi dei prodotti medicinali e Economia e regolazione del farmaco
Course ID FA0040
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PATTARINO Franco
Teachers Pattarino Franco
CFU 15
SSD CHIM/09 - FARMACEUTICO TECNOLOGICO APPLICATIVO, SECS-P/07 - ECONOMIA AZIENDALE
Course type Attività formativa integrata
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Grading type V
Modules
Course ID Course SSD Teachers Agenda web
FA0041Aspetti tecnologici e normativi dei prodotti medicinali CHIM/09 - FARMACEUTICO TECNOLOGICO APPLICATIVO Pattarino Franco
FA0042Economia e regolazione del farmaco SECS-P/07 - ECONOMIA AZIENDALE Jommi Claudio
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Course Aspetti tecnologici e normativi dei prodotti medicinali e Economia e regolazione del farmaco: Aspetti tecnologici e normativi dei prodotti medicinali
Course ID FA0041
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PATTARINO Franco
Teachers Pattarino Franco
CFU 8
Teaching duration (hours) 64
Individual study time 136
SSD CHIM/09 - FARMACEUTICO TECNOLOGICO APPLICATIVO
Course type Modulo di sola Frequenza
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category C
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student must demonstrate to be able to apply its knowledge to describe the content of the documentation pertaining the medicinal product and to identify and illustrate the methods used to compose such documentation, to use the specific language of this very specialized discipline and to address the professional responsibilities of the pharmaceutical technologist. Moreover, he will be able to assess the implications and results of studies aimed at obtaining the marketing authorization for a medicinal product
Contenuti The teaching want to give an understanding about the different stages that characterize the life cycle of a product that contain a new therapeutic agent, from the inception to the medicine withdrawal from the market. Besides it has the purpose to describe the rules governing medicinal products in Italy and in the EU and, in particular, the requirements from the regulatory athorities for getting the marketing authorization of the product. The strategies and methodologies implemented by the pharmaceutical companies to satisfy these requirements are detailed.
Obiettivi formativi The aim is to provide students with information and knowledge on the processes that, starting with the identification of a New Chemical Entity (NCE), lead to the marketing of medicinal products, focusing both on the scientific aspects (drug discovery, formulation development, manufacture and production controls) and procedural and regulatory ones (patents, MA).
Prerequisiti There are no prerequisites, but it is strongly recommended to attend the training only after having attended and/or passed the examinations of the courses of the first three years and in particular those of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology.
Metodi didattici The course will be delivered mainly in form of lectures. Some seminars are planned, carried out by experienced people from pharmaceutical industry, which will illustrate the practical application of the exposed theoretical concepts. Occasionally, students will be invited to respond jointly to questions on topics already treated and to recover supplementary educational material on AIFA web sites, EMA and FDA
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The examination will be carried out in oral form. To achieve the final vote, the student must demonstrate that he has understood, and he is able to use the fundamental concepts of each topic. The evaluation will be based on the following criteria: 1. knowledge and theoretical understanding and application of the studied subjects; 2. independence of judgment and ability to link the studied arguments; 3. communication skills and appropriateness in the use of technical language; 4. learning ability.
Programma esteso Pharmaceutical product lifecycle Exploratory phase Research phase: preformulation and formulation Development phase: pharmaceutical development, pre-clinical and clinical Trials (Phase I, II and III) Marketing and post-marketing The rules governing the marketing of medicinal products Intellectual property: fundamentals, procedures; pharmaceutical patent Marketing Authorization Manufacturing Authorization Clinical Trial Authorization Procedures, Common Technical Document. The quality in the pharmaceutical industry Quality System: introduction, references, objectives, quality monitoring. Quality Control and Quality Assurance. Quality Risk Management: the risk and the risk management, references, QRM process, techniques, case studies Quality by Design: statistical tools: Design of Experiments Validation procedures and protocols for product and processes.
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Course Aspetti tecnologici e normativi dei prodotti medicinali e Economia e regolazione del farmaco: Economia e regolazione del farmaco
Course ID FA0042
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader JOMMI CLAUDIO
Teachers Jommi Claudio
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 119
SSD SECS-P/07 - ECONOMIA AZIENDALE
Course type Modulo di sola Frequenza
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category C
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Contenuti First part: pharmaceutical market and its regulation (price & reimbursement: case-studies) Second part: pharmaceutical companies and their organisational structure Third part: economic evaluation of drugs (theory and exercises)
Testi di riferimento Part 1: Pisano G, Science Business, 2006, Harvard Business School Press; Gianfrate F, Il mercato dei farmaci tra salute e business, Franco Angeli Editore, 2014. Part 2: Readings list. Part 3: Mennini FS, Cicchetti A, Fattore G, Russo P. La Valutazione Economica dei Programmi Sanitari. Il Pensiero Scientifico ed. 2011. Terza Edizione.
Obiettivi formativi The course aims at (i) making students aware of the regulatory context of the pharmaceutical companies, of innovation processes in the pharmaceutical industry, and on the organisational structure and the main functions of the pharmaceutical companies (ii) and carrying out drugs comparative analysis from an economic perspective. Knowledge and competences will be applied to case studies focused on negotiation of prices and reimbursement and exercises on economic evaluation and budget impact analysis. Students are expected to be more autonomous in managing drugs market access issue and to improce communication skills thanks case-studies discussion and groups projetc.
Prerequisiti None
Metodi didattici The course is organised in traditional lectures, exercises (on economic evaluation and budget impact analysis), case-studies and guest speakers coming from the pharmaceutical industry (on negotiation of drugs prices and reimbursement). Students are also required to work on a groups project. The topic and organisation of groups project are presented during the first classes Students are required to participate fully in class and pull their weight in group work. Group projects will be graded.
Altre informazioni None
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Grading is based on: • one written exam (80% of the final grade); all topics discussed druing the course will be covered by the final exam, which will include open question (no multiple choice), exercises and the discussion of a case-study • groups project results (20% of the grade).
Programma esteso First part: pharmaceutical market and its regulations The Italian health care system: main aspects and relationships with the industry The pharmaceutical market: international and national trends. Aggregate trends and their split per main therapeutic areas, distribution systems, reimbursability status, and patent status. Pharmaceutical market regulation: Pre-Marketing Regulation, Marketing Authorisation, Price and Reimbursement, Managed Market Entry Contracts, Regional and Local Policies (formularies, procurement, distribution systems, actions on prescribing behaviour) Secondo part: pharmaceutical companies and their functions Pharmaceutical companies: organisational structure and main functions Research and Development: phases, economics, relationships among companies (co-research, co-development, licensing, patent negotiation) Market access and Public affairs Marketing and sales Third part: economic evaluation of drugs An introduction to Health Technology Assessment Economic evaluation of drugs: principles, methods, phases Budget impact analysis: differences from the economic evaluation Budget impact analysis and economic evaluation of drugs
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Course Metodologie avanzate in analisi chimica-tossicologica
Course ID FA0036
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ALLEGRONE Gianna
Teachers Allegrone Gianna
CFU 5
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 85
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 4
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Knowledge of advanced analytical techniques of chromatography and mass spectrometry and of polluting substances. Ability to apply such knowledge and skills in the determination of bioactive compounds in complex matrices
Contenuti Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Interfacing problems Pollutants and related methods of analysis Pesticides. Dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). POP list
Testi di riferimento D.C.Harris “Quantitative chemical analysis” ed.Zanichelli Watson, “Pharmaceutical analysis”, 3th ed. Elsevier C. Baird “ Enviromental chemistry” Freeman and Company New York Watson and Sparkma “Introduction to Mass Spectrometry” ed.Wiley
Obiettivi formativi Knowledge of advanced analytical techniques applicable to the determination of drugs, pollutants and bioactive substances present in complex matrices
Prerequisiti Basic knowledge of organic chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis
Metodi didattici Lessons
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The exam includes a written test followed by an eventual oral interview. The written test, which lasts 90 minutes consists of 5 open questions. The interview,at the discretion of the teacher or the student's request, initially involves the review of the written exam and then a question on a topic of the program.
Programma esteso Principles of gas chromatography. Gas Chromatography: injectors, columns, detectors. Selectivity, efficiency, resolution. Van Deemter equation. Retention indices: Kovats indices Headspace methods: static, dynamic, SPME Principles of mass spectrometry. Sources: IE, CI, ESI, APCI, Maldi. Analyzers: magnetic, double focusing, quadrupole, ion trap, TOF Resolving power and resolution. Tandem mass spectrometry. High resolution mass spectrometry. Mass spectrum. Molecular ion and pseudomolecolar ion, isotopic abundance, fragmentations. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Definition of the gas chromatographic method. Definition of the spectrometric method. Full scan, SIM, MS / MS. Qualitative analysis. Use of database. Quantitative analysis. Calibration curve. Internal standard method. Isootopic dilution Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Interfacing problems Qualitative and quantitative analysis. Definition of the chromatographic method. Definition of the spectrometric method Pollutants and related methods of analysis Pesticides. Chlorinated, organophosphorus, carbamates insecticides. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids insecticides. Erbicides: a) interfering with the growth factors of the plant: auxinic herbicides; b) interfering with the photosynthesis process: triazine, cloroacetamidi, urea derivatives, dipiridilici derivatives; c) interfering the synthesis of aromatic amino acids: glyphosate; d) interfering the cell division: sulfonylureas. Inorganic and metal organic fungicides, organic fungicides: dithiocarbamates, benzimidazoles, and diphenyl. Repellents. Dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans: structures, sources of pollution, toxicity. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB): structures, sources of pollution, toxicity, methods of disposal POP list
Course borrowed to CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0036 Metodologie avanzate in analisi chimica-tossicologica - NOVARA
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Course Tossicologia e laboratorio di farmacologia
Course ID FA0039
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GENAZZANI Armando
Teachers Genazzani Armando
CFU 6
Teaching duration (hours) 24
Individual study time 90
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student will know the principles of pharmacovigilance, its importance and its modalities. He/She will also know the basics to define the risk/benefit of drugs. Last, through the practicals, he/she will be apt to analyze pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data to extract basic quantitative measures of drugs
Contenuti TOXICOLOGY MODULE 1. General principles of toxicology 2. Disposition of toxicants 3. Non organ-directed toxicity 4. Target organ toxicity 5. Toxic agents PHARMACOLOGY LABORATORY MODULE Pharmacodynamics Determination of ligand affinity and of maximum number of binding sites. Binding Type 1 - (Progressive increase of the radioactive ligand). The Scatchard plot. Binding Type 2 -(Fixed concentration of radioactive ligand and increasing concentrations of non-radioactive ligand). IC50 calculation. Pharmacokinetics Single intravenous or oral administration: determining of terminal plasma half-life, plasma clearance, renal clearance and volume of distribution. Continuous infusion: calculation of plasma concentration at steady state Repeated administrations: determining maximum and minimum steady-state plasma levels.
Testi di riferimento Cassarett and Doull: Elementi di tossicologia, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana Piera Ghi: Tossicologia, Edizioni Minerva Medica. Handouts provided at class.
Obiettivi formativi Knowledge of toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic mechanisms that regulate the toxic effects produced by synthetic and natural xenobiotics, especially with regard to drugs, and knowledge of methodologies used for evaluation of the toxicological risk derived from exposure to toxic agents. At the end of the course: KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING ABILITY the student knows concepts related to -molecular and toxicokinetic mechanisms underlying the development of xenobiotic toxic effects; -the general principles governing the estimation of the risk resulting from exposure to chemical agents. In addition, the student has knowledge of preclinical experimentation required to characterize the toxicological profile of a xenobiotic, in particular to novel drug marketing. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING the student is able to: -understand and evaluate the risk/benefit of drugs; -use the toxicological knowledge in the process of research and drug development; -understand and solve questions on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics by experimental data processing. LEARNING SKILLS, JUDGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS the student is able to critically discuss on the course topics, avoiding a mnemonic knowledge.
Prerequisiti There are no formal requirements although to gain the most from the course a knowledge of pharmacology is required.
Metodi didattici Traditional teaching method through frontal lectures and classroom excercises. The educational material consists of the recommended text books and of material (handouts and slides) made available to students in the dedicated website (https://dir.uniupo.it). The frontal lectures provide close interaction between the teacher and students; during the lesson the teacher asks questions to students to stimulate critical thinking and ability to connect the diverse topics.
Altre informazioni n.a.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento TOXICOLOGY MODULE The exam consists of an oral test on the course contents. PHARMACOLOGY LABORATORY MODULE The exam consists of a written test comprising one question on pharmacodynamics and one on pharmacokinetics. The final mark is the average of written and oral tests, expressed in thirties.
Programma esteso TOXICOLOGY MODULE 1. General principles of toxicology: History and scope of toxicology- Principles of toxicology -Mechanisms of toxicity - Risk assessment - Pharmacovigilance - A-F classification of adverse drug reactions. 2. Disposition of toxicants: Absorption, distribution, and escretion of toxicants - Biotransformation of xenobiotics -Toxicokinetics. 3. Non organ-directed toxicity: Chemical carcinogenesis - Genetic Toxicology -Development toxicology. 4. Target Organ toxicity: Toxic responses of the blood - Toxic responses of the immune system - Toxic responses of the liver - Toxic responses of the kidney - Toxic responses of the respiratory system - Toxic responses of the nervous system - Toxic responses of the cardiovascular system - Toxic responses of the endocrine system - Toxic responses of the reproductive system. 5. Toxic agents: Toxic effects of pesticides - Toxic effects of metals. PHARMACOLOGY LABORATORY MODULE Single intravenous or oral administration: determining of terminal plasma half-life, plasma clearance, renal clearance and volume of distribution. Continuous infusion: calculation of plasma concentration at steady state Repeated administrations: determining maximum and minimum steady-state plasma levels.
Course borrowed to CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0039 Tossicologia e laboratorio di farmacologia - NOVARA
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Course Biotecnologie alimentari + Analisi e controllo di qualità dei prodotti alimentari
Course ID FA0043
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ARLORIO Marco
Teachers Arlorio Marco, Coisson Jean Daniel, Locatelli Monica
CFU 15
Teaching duration (hours) 72
Individual study time 231
SSD CHIM/10 - CHIMICA DEGLI ALIMENTI
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category C
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento The teaching will be delivered in Italian; part of the material used by the teacher will be in English (Food Biotechnology part)
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Analysis part: Acquisition of basic and specific knowledge on useful methods in food analysis, knowledge of the theoretical principles of analytical instrumental methods and specific applications in the food sector; acquisition of an appropriate scientific language on the matter. In relation to the ability to apply the acquired knowledge, the student will demonstrate that he / she knows how to identify the methods of analysis more suitable to the resolution of a specific problem and the information that the method of analysis is able to provide. As part of the laboratory activities, the student must be able to understand and correctly apply the provided analysis protocols, obtain the analytical data, solve the calculations necessary in order to obtain the data in the correct measurement unit, interpret the data obtained following any specific legal rules, conducting with independent judgment the evaluation of the experimental data obtained. Ability to expose the analytical data obtained in a written report, suitable for the understanding also of non-professionals. Food Biotechnology module: the student must demonstrate the acquisition of basic (as well as specific and advanced) knowledge on the application of “first” and “second” generation biotechnologies to food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products; knowledge about the main themes of biotechnology applied in nutraceutical-food field, showing to have understood a technical language and good technical-scientific exposure capacity. The student will demonstrate learning knowledge about the production techniques related to biotechnology, the related regulatory framework and to master the possible choice of the most useful technique for managing an applied work situation (at laboratory and industry level, in this last case as a part of an interdisciplinary scientific technical team). Finally, the student must demonstrate the ability to plan a biotechnological project applied to the food and nutraceutical sector.
Contenuti Part I: - Food biotechnology: introduction - Characteristics of microorganisms useful in biotechnology: the cell as “ molecular factory” - Fermentations in food area - Virtuous microorganisms and “microbial starters” - Prebiotic, probiotics and synbiotics - Fermented foods - Industrial microbiology: classificationd of fermentations and characteristics - Bioreactors and downstream processes - Fermentation’s kinetics - Enzymes and cells immobilization - Biomasses, Single Cell Proteins (SCP) - Examples of primary and secondary metabolites: alcohols, sweteners, gums, organic acids, aminoacids, flavorings pigments. - Examples of bio-conversions and bio-remediations (overview) - Enzymes: classification, production and applications. - Recombinant technology in food area: MGMOs e GMOs - Regulatory framework (overview) - Analytical biotechnology: overview - Web resources Part II - Methods of analysis useful for the determinations of parameters present on nutrition labels (proteins, saturated and unsaturated lipids, simple and complex carbohydrates, fiber, minerals). - Official methods of analysis for some foods such as: drinking water, wine, milk, olive oil, flour, pasta. - Instrumental analyses applied to foods, such as electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis, GCxGC-MS, HPLC-MS, MALDI-TOF, atomic spectroscopy, PCR and Real-time PCR. - Laboratory activities focused on the analysis of drinking water, olive oil, wine, milk candies and chocolate. - Laboratory activities relate to a complex food (cheese), defining its nutritional label, its characterization and evaluating the ripening.
Testi di riferimento Slides used in the course, provided by the Teachers Food Biotechnology “BIOTECNOLOGIE ALIMENTARI”, Gigliotti-Verga; Piccin Editore Industrial microbiology and fermentations CHIMICA DELLE FERMENTAZIONI E MICROBIOLOGIA INDUSTRIALE, Marzona, II Edizione. PICCIN Editore. Applied Biotechnologies: BIOTECNOLOGIE DI BASE, Colin Ratledge, Bjørn Kristiansen; Zanichelli Editore Deep insights in biotechnology: BIOTECNOLOGIA MOLECOLARE, Glick, Pasternak; Zanichelli Editore. Food Analysis: ANALISI DEI PRODOTTI ALIMENTARI, Cabras, Tuberoso, Ed. Piccin, Padova, 2014 Lab. activities: Notes and protocols from the teacher
Obiettivi formativi The knowledge gained from the course will be useful to the student in Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology to complete the knowledge in “food area” . The first part, related to food biotechnologies, provides the students with the basic knowledge in the field of biotechnology in the food industry (molecular biology bases; virtuous microorganisms and microbial starter, fermentation, bio-production and recovery of bio-products used in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries; production of flavourings and additives through biotechnology, food enzymes and applications; recombinant biotechnology, GMO and GMO; notes on the regulatory field). In the part related to the Food Analyses the student will acquire the basic knowledge in food analysis, in order to understand the meaning of each analysis and its scope. The laboratory exercises aim to prove students in food analysis and to verify their ability to apply the knowledge related to analysis of simple and complex food matrices. The student must demonstrate the ability to correctly obtain and discuss the analytical data and to use the appropriate method of communication of the results obtained
Prerequisiti Drug Analysis I (Analisi dei Farmaci I) is compulsory in order to access to the lab experiences. We recommend the acquisition of knowledge about the courses of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Food chemistry, technology and contaminants, fundamental for the understanding of the lessons of this course. The basic knowledge in Quantitative Drug Analysis laboratory (Analisi dei Farmaci II) is welcomed.
Metodi didattici The teaching method used provides ex-cathedra lectures given by the teachers, complemented by class discussion of cases study. Specific seminars could be organized in cooperation with external Teachers and experts in the field. For the analysis part, in addition to lectures, calculation exercises related to methods of analysis applied in the laboratory will be proposed. With regard to laboratory activities, students will perform the required analyzes, interpreting the supplied protocols, reporting the steps performed in the laboratory notebook, making the calculations in order to express the result in the unit of measure required and filling the analysis reports. Will also be given the means of preparing a comprehensive report on the food analyzed complex.
Altre informazioni The course, even if structured in two parts, must to be considered a whole course finalized to complete the knowledge and the skills in "food area" of the chemist expert in pharmaceutical sciences, both considering the analysis of foods (quality and safety assessment) as well as the production of new bioactive ingredients/food by mean of biotechnology methodologies. The lab activities are scheduled in two parts, the first including the analyses of simple foods (wine matrices, milk, oil, water, candy) will take place in January, the second related to the characterization of a complex food (cheese) will take place in March.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento For the Food Biotechnology part, the assessment of the learning is based on an oral Test, focused on the themes developed in this Course. The test is organised in three questions, one question focused on the first part of the Course (microorganisms, fermentation, probiotics); one question on the second part (industrial microbiology and bio-products), and one on the last part (recombinant biotechnologies and recombinant products) For the Food Analysis part the assessment of the learning starts as an evaluation in itinere as written test at the end of theory lessons, mandatory for the laboratory admission, related to all topics described in the preparatory lessons (including lab safety rules). This evaluation consists in a written test with 7 multiple choice questions, 2 calculation exercises and 6 open questions, between these two questions in particular require that the student selects the most suitable analyses in order to solve a specific analytical problem. The evaluation of the in itinere test is part of the final evaluation of the course and, in case of unsatisfactory results, will be integrated with oral questions during the period in the laboratory or at the end of the course as a specific exam. Oral questions are typically 3: one to provide a description of an instrumental analytical method, one to describe an analysis performed in the laboratory with specific focus on safety rules and a question on the selection of methods of analysis. Related to the activities carried out in the laboratory, the evaluation includes the preparation of analysis reports, the correctness of the calculations and completeness of the laboratory notebook. Finally, it will evaluate the presentation skills of analytical data obtained on the complex food in a written report form.
Programma esteso Part I (Food Biotechnology, Prof. Arlorio) History and meaning of food biotechnology. Molecules/macromolecules of biotechnological interest. Features of microorganisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes), characteristics. Transcription, translation, gene expression and regulation. Cell as "molecular factory." Food fermentations: alcoholic, homo- and hetero-lactic malo-lactic, propionic, acetic, butyric, and isobutyric, citric fermentation. Virtuous and starter microorganisms in food productions. Fungi of food interest (filamentous fungi, yeasts, edible mushrooms). The lactic acid bacteria. Bifidobacteria. Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. Bioactive peptides of milk; prebiotic oligosaccharides. Industrial production of starters cultures and probiotic microorganisms. Bacteriocins: features and classification. Cyanobacteria and microalgae, biomass and pigments production. Fermented foods: microbiological, biochemical, biotechnological and fermentation features (milk/dairy products, alcoholics, fermented vegetables; leavened bakery products, cocoa, coffee and tea, sausages, other fermented foods). Industrial microbiology: classification of fermentations (continuous, discontinuous). Bio-reactors. Fermentation parameters. Kinetics, yields of fermentation. Immobilized enzymes/cells. Application of immobilized systems. Operations Units for recovery, separation and purification of fermented products (downstream processing). Biomass, Single Cell Protein (SCP). Red yeast rice, Pruteen, Quorn. Primary and secondary metabolites obtained by fermentation: alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, neutral polysaccharides, other bioproducts. Production of sweeteners (aspartame, glucose syrup/ maltose/fructose and isomalt). Examples of bio-conversion and bio-remediation in food. Flavourings. Receptors and taste/aroma perception. Examples of flavourings from biotechnology: lactones, terpenes, vanillin. Cyclodextrins production. Pigments: carotenoids productions. Enzymes: meaning and production, classification. Enzymes as markers of food processes. Enzyme applications in food technology (production of glucose syrups; milk delactosation, meat tenderizing, extraction technologies, production of chitosan, clarification and stabilization of juices and alcoholic beverages, accelerated ripening of cheese, enzymatic reduction of acrylamide, other applications). Enzymes from extremophiles microorganisms. Food Biotechnology of the second generation: recombinant DNA. GMMO: r-Chym and r-BGH. Plant biotechnology: GMO foods: Flavr-SavrTM tomato, Bt corn, Soja Round-up Ready, Golden Rice, other GMOs. Food biotechnology in animal area (cloning, salmonids, mammals, other experimental modifications). National and international regulatory framework. Outline on Analytical Biotechnology in food area. Web resources useful in food biotechnology. Part II (Food Analysis and Quality Control, Prof. Coisson) The food analysis and quality control: importance and principal fields. Moisture: oven drying, Marcusson and Karl Fischer methods. Proteins: total nitrogen (Kjeldahl), principles, instruments, safety procedures, correction factors. Extraction, SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE electrophoresis, mono and two-dimensional; isoelectrofocusing. Lipids: extraction in Soxhlet apparatus, Gerber methods for dairy products. Methods for characterization: refractive index, saponification number, iodine number. Quality evaluation: acidity, peroxide number, p-anisidine number. Olive oils: European regulations. Panel test. Spectrophotometric analysis. FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) and unsaponifiable fraction analyses (sterols, superior alcohols, erythrodiol/uvaol). Milk: density, cryoscopic index, dry matter, acidity, peroxidase and phosphatase tests, soluble not-denatured whey proteins. Cheese analysis. Sugars: reducing sugars (Fehling), sucrose with polarimetric method (Clerget). Refractive index and Brix degrees. Cereals and derived products (flours, bread and pasta): moisture, ashes, gluten, acidity, bleaching contaminants, ascorbic acid. Methods for identification of common wheat and eggs in pasta. Wine: ethanol percentage, dry matter, total, fixed and volatile acidity, proline, polyphenols, NMR and mass spectrometry methods for evaluation of sugars origin. Water: legislation for drinking water and mineral water. Ammoniac (Nessler and phenol-ipochlorite), nitrites (Griess), nitrates, oxidative Kubel number, BOD, COD., hardness, chlorides, chlorine, sulfides, iron and chrome Additives: quantification of benzoic acid in non-alcoholic beverages. Enzymatic analysis: aims, sample preparation, examples of methods and protocols. Total antioxidant activity methods. DNA analysis: PCR and PCR-related techniques (AFLP, RFLP, RAPD, Real time). HPLC applications and previous extraction and purification by SPE; GC-techniques applications, aroma extraction by SPME. Metal analysis: Atomic absorption spectrometry, theory and applications. Practical experiences Analyses of drinking water, wine, milk, olive oil. Benzoic acid quantification in non-alcoholic beverages, sucrose in chocolate and candies. Characterization of a complex food (cheese): moisture, ashes, proteins, lipids (Soxhlet and Van Gulik); titrimetric acidity and lactic acids (enzymatic). Fat fraction: acidity, peroxide number, oxidation index, FAME composition by GC. Proteins electrophoresis: extraction, SDS-PAGE and urea-PAGE, image analysis. Quantification of biogenic amines by HPLC. DNA analysis: extraction, clean-up and amplification
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Course Chimica farmaceutica e progettazione del farmaco II
Course ID FA0035
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader SORBA Giovanni
Teachers Sorba Giovanni, Tron Gian Cesare
CFU 11
Teaching duration (hours) 88
Individual study time 187
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Module A and Module B The students at the end of the course will know fundamental aspects regarding specific drug classes. In particular, the student will be able to recognize the general strategies for their design, the study of their mechanisms of action at the molecular level, their chemical- toxicological aspects and their relationships between chemical structure and biological activity. As ultimate goal the student will be able to read, in a critical manner, scientific articles regarding these classes of drugs.
Contenuti Module A The course deals with the in-depth study of different classes of drugs, considering the rationale behind their discovery, the mechanism of action, the structure-activity relationships, and the therapeutic use. In particular we will consider the following classes of drugs: Cardiovascular agents; Drug actin on the renal system; Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids; Histamine and antihistaminic agent; Antiulcer agents; Steroid hormones and therapeutically related compounds. Module B The course deals with the in-depth study of different classes of drugs, considering the rationale behind their discovery, the mechanism of action, the structure-activity relationships, and the therapeutic use. In particular we will consider the following classes of drugs: anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral.
Testi di riferimento A. Gasco, F. Gualtieri, C. Melchiorre Chimica Farmaceutica (I Eds.) Casa Editrice Ambrosiana; W. Foye, Principi di Chimica Farmaceutica, Piccin; (VI Eds.); Wilson and Gisvold, Chimica Farmaceutica (I Eds.) Casa Editrice Ambrosiana; G.L. Patrick Introduzione alla Chimica Farmaceutica (edizione integrata) EdiSES. T.L. Lemke, D.A. Williams. Foye’s, Principi di Chimica Farmaceutica, V Eds. Piccin.
Obiettivi formativi Module A The student should be able to recognize and to write the structures of the main drugs of the classes highlighted in the content. He should be able to discuss their chemical and physical properties, their mode of action and the relationships between the structure and biological activity, understand how they were designed and synthesized. Module B The goals of the course of Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design II are: To provide students with the fundamental knowledge on antibacterial, anticancer and antiviral drugs, and at the same time the general strategies for their design, the study of their mechanisms of action at the molecular level, their chemical- toxicological aspects and their relationships between chemical structure and biological activity. At the end of the course, the student will have gain a deep knowledge concerning these classes of drugs, in particular with regard to their mechanism of action at the chemical level. At the end of the course, the student will be able to read, in a critical manner, books and scientific articles regarding these classes of drugs.
Prerequisiti Regarding preparatory Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug design I Preliminary matters Knowledge in the field of Organic Chemistry, General Pathology, Biochemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology.
Metodi didattici Frontal Seminar
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Module A The learning assessment consists of an oral discussion on a scientific paper previously provided to the student. The student should be able to explain the manuscript in a critical manner, being able to recognize the chemistry used and the medicinal chemistry strategies involved. Questions concerning the topics discussed during the lesson will also be posed. The maximum score will be 30. Module B The learning assessment consists of a written examination. In particular, five questions will be posed to the students. The questions will be randomly chosen from 100 questions. These questions will be given to the students at the beginning of the course and they can always be downloaded in DIR. Each question has a maximum score of 6. The questions cover all the topics which have been discussed during the lessons.
Programma esteso Module A Cardiovascular agents. positive inotropic, antianginal, antiarrhythmic agents, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel modulators, central and peripheral sympatholytic agents, vasodilators, inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis and antilipoproteinemici; design and synthesis of agents of the cardiovascular system, the search for new agents for the cardiovascular system Agents that interfere with the hormone system (corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, male and female sex hormones). Nomenclature, structure, mechanisms of action, biosynthesis and metabolism. Drugs that act on receptors SAR steroids. Antagonists of steroids, mechanism of action, design and synthesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines and anti-allergy drugs. Design and synthesis of NSAIDs and H1 antihistamines, the search for new NSAIDs and antihistamines H1. Histamine receptor H1, H2, H3 and H4 ligands. Antisecretory agents: H2 antihistamines, proton pump inhibitors. Design and synthesis of H2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. Module B Antibacterial agents. The giants of the past: Leeuwenhoek, Spallanzani, Pasteur, Lister, Kock. The bacterial cell. Gram + and Gram -. The bacterial cell wall. Proflavine. Sulfonamides. The problem of the resistance. Sulphones. Diidrofolate reductase inhibitors. Penicillins. Cephalosporins. Carbapenenms. Monobactams. Beta-lactamase inhibitors. Other antibiotics which act on bacterial cell wall. Antibacterial agents which act on the plasma membrane. Antibacterial agents which impair protein synthesis. Antibacterial agents which act on nucleic acids. Antitubercular drugs. Antiprotozoal drugs. Antimalarian drugs. Antifungal drugs. Anthelmintic drugs. Anticancer drugs. Cancer: an introduction. Causes of cancer. Antimetabolites. Drugs acting on nucleic acids. Drugs acting on tubulin. Hormone-based terapies. Kinases inhibitors.Miscellaneous enzyme inhibitors. Antiviral agents. Virus. Structure of virus. Life cycle of virus. Antiviral drugs against DNA virus. Antiviral drugs against RNA virus. Hiv virus and drugs.Antiviral drugs against flu virus. Antiviral drug against cold virus. Antiviral drugs against hepatite virus.
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Course Biologia strutturale + Farmacologia preclinica e clinica
Course ID FA0046
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GENAZZANI Armando
Teachers Genazzani Armando
CFU 15
SSD BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA, BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa integrata
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Grading type V
Modules
Course ID Course SSD Teachers Agenda web
FA0047Biologia strutturale BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA Garavaglia Silvia
FA0048Farmacologia preclinica e clinica BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA Orsetti Marco Riccardo Lilio, Genazzani Armando
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Course Biologia strutturale + Farmacologia preclinica e clinica: Biologia strutturale
Course ID FA0047
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GARAVAGLIA Silvia
Teachers Garavaglia Silvia
CFU 5
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 85
SSD BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA
Course type Modulo di sola Frequenza
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category C
Year 4
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi At the end of the course, the students will be able to read in a critical way, scientific literature regarding the relationsheep between structure-function of a protein, in particularly of enzymes. In addition, the students will be able to analyze specific enzymes interactions with their ligands, by displaying them on specific programs of graphics.
Contenuti The course of STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY is delivered to students of the 4th year CTF pharmacology course and for students of both PHARMACY that of CTF as credit free. The course aims to give the student the knowledge of the fundamental principles of bio-crystallography with emphasis on the potential and limitations. • Structural classification and analysis of protein structures. • Knowledge of the structure-function relationships in the series of protein treated in the course. • Critical analysis of a protein structure determined by X-ray crystallography • Analysis structures capabilities and extraction of structural information
Testi di riferimento • Gregory A. Petsko & Dagmar Ringe. “PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION” OUP Oxford, 2008 ISBN 9780199556847 • Andreas Liljas, lars Liljas, jure Piskur, Goran lindblom, Poul Nissen & Morten Kjeldgaard. “STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY” World Scientific. ISBN: 9788808182173
Obiettivi formativi The course aims to provide knowledge on bio-crystallography basic principles, with emphasis on the potentials and limitations. It will also give at the student fundamental knowledge on the classification at the structural level of same enzymes and the analysis of protein structures. Knowledge of the structure-function relationships in the series of protein treated in the course. Capacity for critical analysis of a specific X-ray 3D structure to extract information about protein activity. Also it will be encouraged the research of most recent data published in scientific journals of international importance to deepen all the studied arguments using the scientific web-search "PubMed".
Prerequisiti None. However, it will be required a good preparation in biochemistry.
Metodi didattici ex-cathedra traditional lectures
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Oral exams. The oral exam will be assessed the student's ability to read and interpret a scientific article about the crystallographic structure of a protein. It will also assess knowledge of the basic principles of protein crystallography
Programma esteso • Crystallization Techniques of Biological Macromolecules. • X-ray diffraction (The Synchrotron). • How do you solve a three-dimensional structure of a biological macromolecule. • Databases: the PDB format file. • Visualization and analysis of three-dimensional structures through computer graphics • FOLDING-From the sequence to the three-dimensional structure. Small monographic courses (3 hours by topic): • Biological context and structure-function relationships: • ßMiosina / Actin • ATP-synthase • RNA-polymerase • Folding related diseases • Virus -Interaction structure-function anti-HIV drugs
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Course Biologia strutturale + Farmacologia preclinica e clinica: Farmacologia preclinica e clinica
Course ID FA0048
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GENAZZANI Armando
Teachers Orsetti Marco Riccardo Lilio, Genazzani Armando
CFU 10
Teaching duration (hours) 80
Individual study time 170
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Modulo di sola Frequenza
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category C
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi At the end of the course the student will be able to know the different steps in pharmaceutical research and development as well as the design and mission of different start-ups and industrial settings. He/she will also be able to evaluate pharmacological novelty of a new drug on the market. In general terms, he will have the basic rudiments to follow his inclinations towards entrapreneurship in the pharmaceutical sector.
Contenuti Evaluation of preclinical and clinical evidences The mail jobs and responsabilities in the pharmaceutical industry The lifecycle of a drug: from the bench to late commercialization Clinical Development Regulatory requirements Post-marketing Licensing Patents Extensions of use Characteristics of the main animal models used in pre-clinical pharmacology (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio, rodents, primates, rabbit) Laws governing animal use for scientific puroposes Guidelines for animal welfare Radioligand binding to calculate in vitro parameters of novel drugs Experiments on isolates organs Preclinical in vivo experiments: pharmacokinetics (t1/2, Vd, Kel, CL and bioavailability) toxicology teratogenesis evaluation og abuse potential of drugs evaluation of cognitive functions evaluation of anti-epileptic, antidepressive, and antipsychotic drugs evaluation on analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs
Testi di riferimento EPARs (European Public Assessment Report) from the European Medicines Agency (www.ema.europa.eu) Lecture notes and handouts
Obiettivi formativi This course is part of the following set of interlinked courses with a continuum of objectives: - Farmacognosia e Fitoterapia (II year) - Farmacologia e Farmacoterapia (IV year) - Tossicologia e Laboratorio di Farmacologia (IV year) - Opzione farmacologica (pre-clinica e clinica; IV year) In particular, this course will allow: to gain basic elements to enter the pharmaceutical world in the private sector gain basic elements to allow students to create start-up companies Gain basic elements to evaluate drugs or health technologies
Prerequisiti There are no formal requirements although to gain the most from the course a knowledge of pharmacology is required.
Metodi didattici Traditional lectures, as well as projects performed by students and commented during lectures
Altre informazioni n.a.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento A written report and a powerpoint presentation will be the basis of the evaluation. The work will be a simulation of the pre-clinical and clinical development of a medicinal product. The pre-clinical module will be evaluated with an oral exam with two questions.
Programma esteso Evaluation of preclinical and clinical evidences The principal jobs and responsabilities in the pharmaceutical industry The lifecycle of a drug: from the bench to late commericalization Clinical Development Regulatory requirements Post-marketing Licensing Patents Extensions of use Characteristics of the main animal models used in pre-clinical pharmacology (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio, rodents, primates, rabbit) Laws governing animal use for scientific puroposes Guidelines for animal welfare Radioligand binding to calculate in vitro parameters of novel drugs Experiments on isolates organs Preclinical in vivo experiments: pharmacokinetics (t1/2, Vd, Kel, CL and bioavailability) toxicology teratogenesis evaluation og abuse potential of drugs evaluation of cognitive functions evaluation of anti-epileptic, antidepressive, and antipsychotic drugs evaluation on analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs
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Course Farmacologia sperimentale e farmacoterapia
Course ID FA0037
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GRILLI Mariagrazia
Teachers Grilli Mariagrazia
CFU 15
Teaching duration (hours) 120
Individual study time 255
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student is expected to apply acquired knowledge and competence for the identification and understanding of the most appropriate and safe therapeutic choices in common human diseases. Moreover he/she should be able to critically understand the most modern preclinical approaches aimed at discovery of new pharmacological entities in therapeutic areas of high medical need. Last but not least, he/she should be able to understand, share and use the appropriate pharmacotherapy terminology and its correct application in clinical practice.
Contenuti Pharmacotherapy- the treatment of disease through the administration of medications- is a course that introduces students to the main drug classes currently available for the treatment of major human diseases. A basic understanding of treatment options available for such disease states is also developed during this course through the discussion, for each drug, of mechanism of actions, side effects, contraindications and limitations in their use in specific patient subpopulations. Anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, genetics, cellular and molecular biology, clinical biochemistry aspects related to the presentation and management of such diseases will also be discussed during the course since they are essential to understand the rational basis of therapeutic interventions. Physicochemical and biological principles of dosage forms and drug delivery strategies used to treat specific human disorders will also be reviewed. The course will extensively evaluate and discuss, in an integrated manner, all the variables (genetic and non genetic) that regulate interaction between drugs and human body and that ultimately affect, in an individual manner, therapeutic actions as well as side effects and toxicity of clinically relevant drugs. Altogether, the student will be able to understand the rationale upon which drug therapy decisions are based. Moreover the course includes a module which covers modern aspects of preclinical pharmacology which are critical for new drug discovery
Testi di riferimento Any pharmacotherapy textbook covering the topics of the course can be used, provided it is an updated edition. For example: Goodman and Gilman, The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Ed. MacGraw-Hill; B.G. Katzung, Farmacologia generale e clinica, Piccin; Howland and Mycek, Le basi della farmacologia, Zanichelli; Rang, Dale, Ritter, Farmacologia, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana. For topics which may not be covered by booktexts (i.e. preclinical pharmacology and biotechnological drugs), bibliographic references will be provided.
Obiettivi formativi This course provides students with an integrated approach to understanding principles of and solve problems related to pharmacological treatment of human diseases. Pharmacotherapy enables students to discover connections across multiple disciplines (among others, anatomy, physiology, pathology, biochemistry), see them applied in clinical therapy and to integrate skills and knowledge gained in previous years of their curriculum studiorum for understanding therapy. Students, at the end of this course are formed and can inform people about the correct use and choice of drugs, and should be capable of understanding drug interactions and adverse reactions. In addition, students will be able to critically evaluate the experimental approaches for screening, mechanisms of action definition and pharmacological characterization of new drugs.
Prerequisiti The following exams: physiology, pathology, cellular and molecular pharmacology are prerequisites for the course of preclinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.
Metodi didattici Teaching is given in the form of lectures and group discussions of case studies which will allow the students to critically contribute in the topic understanding. Additionally, every year seminars or workshop on specific topics will be organized with national and international experts. Student attendance is mandatory. Students will be actively involved in the discussion with experts.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The final exam consists in a 30-40 min discussion on selected course topics and will be mainly aimed at evaluating the ability of the students to prove not only their knowledge but also their ability to logically connect concepts, their problem solving ability and their communication skills. Students who have failed the first examination can re-try only after skipping one examination session. Examinations are available, on average, once a month.
Programma esteso Preclinical Pharmacology: in search for new drugs. Target identification and validation in drug discovery. Hit identification and lead optimization. Modern approaches to assay development with a specific focus on functional cell-based assays. Main technological platforms for high throughput screening in drug discovery. Orphan receptors: discussion of successful case studies of GPCR deorphanization. Pharmacogenetics/genomics applied to drug discovery. Animal models in research and drug discovery. Pharmacotherapy. Variability in the individual response to drugs: genetic and non genetic factors. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics: applications in therapy. Adverse drug reactions (ADR). Interaction between drugs, between drug and natural products, drugs and food. Drugs of Peripheral nervous system and neuromuscolar junction. Cholinergic agonists and antagonists and cholinesterase inhibitory drugs; adrenergic agonists and antagonists; pharmacology of neuromuscolar transmission.
Pharmacotherapy of major psychiatric disorders. Anxiolytics, Antidepressants, Mood stabilizers, Antipsychotics. Pharmacotherapy of major neurological disorders. Parkinson’s disease. Anticonvulsant drugs. Benzodiazepines and other sedative-hypnotic drugs. Pain as a symptom or as a disease. NSAID, paracetamol, opiates (SAO, LAO, ROO), treatment of neuropathic pain. Headache and migraine therapy. Immune system and inflammation. Glucocorticoids, Immunosuppressive agents and immunostimulants. Antiistaminic drugs. Anesthesia: local and general anesthetics. Cardiovascular system and kidney. Drugs for the treatment of cardiac insufficiency and myocardial ischemia. Antiarrhythmic drugs. Drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Antihypertensive agents. Diuretics. Drugs acting on the blood. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs. Fibrinolitics. Endocrine system and metabolism. Therapy of osteoporosis and diabetes. Antidislipidemic drugs. Respiratory System. Bronchodilatators and agents used in the treatment of asthma. Antitussive agents and mucolitics. Gastrointestinal System. Agents used for the control of gastric acidity and treatment of peptic ulcers. Agents used for diarrhea and constipation. Antiemetics and proemetics. Prokinetic agents.
Biotech drugs: Peculiarities of biotech drugs vs small molecules. Adverse reactions to biotech drugs. Immunogenicity of biotech drugs. Therapeutic proteins: insulins and insulin analogs, GH and GH antagonist, CSFs, interferons, erithropoietins, tPAs. Evolution and innovation of therapeutic proteins, biobetters. Glicoingegnerization and pegylation. Aptamers. Advanced therapies: gene therapy and cellular therapy. The use of stem cells in human therapy.
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Course Tecnologia e Legislazione Farmaceutiche II
Course ID FA0033
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GIOVANNELLI Lorella
Teachers Giovannelli Lorella
CFU 10
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 158
SSD CHIM/09 - FARMACEUTICO TECNOLOGICO APPLICATIVO
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Contenuti • Dispersed systems: colloidal systems, emulsions and suspensions. • Semisolid preparations: dermatological formulations. • Nasal and pulmonary dosage forms. • Suppositories. • Production of semi-solid preparations. • Sterilization. • Medical devices. • Pharmaceutical legislation: Italian and supranational laws. Classification of pharmacies and medicines. Dispensation of medicinal products in local pharmacies. General characteristics of cosmetic and homeopathic products. Authorization for marketing of medicinal products. Protection of the intellectual activity. • Propaedeutic lectures and practical exercises in laboratory: preparation, composition of the price, labelling and quality control of magistral and officinal galenic formulations. Use of software for the management of the professional activity.
Testi di riferimento Colombo P et al. Principi di tecnologie farmaceutiche. Ed. Ambrosiana. Aulton ME et al. Tecnologie farmaceutiche. Progettazione e allestimento dei medicinali. E. Edra. Minghetti P, Marchetti M. Legislazione farmaceutica. Ed. Ambrosiana. Ansel HC et al. Principi di calcolo farmaceutico. Quindicesima edizione. E. Edra. Farmacopea Ufficiale Italiana, current edition. European Pharmacopoeia, current edition. Bettiol F. Manuale delle preparazioni galeniche. Ed. Tecniche nuove. Lachman L, Lieberman H, Kanig J. The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy. Ed. Lea & Febiger, USA. Fabris L, Rigamonti S. La fabbricazione industriale dei medicinali. Ed. Esculapio, Bologna. Manuali Tecnici A.F.I., Ed. OEMF, Milano.
Obiettivi formativi The objective of the first part of the course is to give to the student the theoretical notions on pharmaceuticals dosage forms explained during the course of Tecnologia e Legislazione farmaceutiche I: semisolid preparations, nasal and pulmonary dosage forms and suppositories. In particular, physico-chemical characteristics of excipients used for the preparation of these dosage forms are explained, together with the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of final forms, the preparation methods in pharmacy and the production in industrial laboratories, and the correlated quality controls. Moreover, the course has the object to provide basic notions of pharmaceutical legislation, national and supranational, regulating industrial activities and the production and marketing of various types of medicinal products, their classification and related dispensing discipline in local pharmacies. The second part of the course aims to provide to the students theoretical and practical information about methods of preparation, price determination, labelling and quality control of magistral and officinal galenic preparations, according to the pharmacopoeia requirements. Particular attention is dedicated to the description of the technological characteristics of the immediate release dosage forms usually prepared in pharmacy and in pharmaceutical industry.
Prerequisiti Fundamentals of pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology and pharmaceutical technology.
Metodi didattici The frontal lessons (7CFU), and the exercises concerning the expedition of a medical recipe, are supported by the aid of multimedia tools for the exposition of the didactic materials. The mandatory practical exercises are carried out individually in the laboratory. Some information about the use of specific informatics media are provided for the management of the professional activity of the pharmacist, and the correlated individual exercises are carried out in the informatics laboratory. 3 CFU are dedicated to all laboratory exercises.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The written exam concerns the theoretical and practical basis about the formulation, preparation and control of the immediate release pharmaceutical dosage forms and about the basic concepts of pharmaceutical legislation. Students may perform the oral exam only if the written one is sufficient; oral exam it can consist of questions intended to test the knowledge and ability to apply in an independent way the knowledge acquired. Moreover, the communication skills of the student are evaluated, in particular the use of specific language for the pharmaceutical and technological discipline. The evaluation of both tests consider the student’s learning skills, in particular the capability to face the professional responsibilities of a pharmacist and of a pharmaceutical technologist. Capability of upgrade, through the scientific publications in the field of pharmaceutical technology. The exams, either written and oral, take place during the official dates and the grade is expressed in thirtieths. During the practical laboratory, the ability to apply the knowledge acquired are evaluated, considering in particular the accurate presentation of the pharmaceutical preparation, the correct expedition of a medical recipe and the composition of the technical report about the quality control of the officinal products that student prepares. Interim evaluations are considered valid for the exam if the grade, expressed in thirtieths, is greater than/equal to eighteen. The overall grade, expressed in thirtieths, is calculated from the average, weighed on the number of CFU, of the grades obtained in the written and oral tests and during the practical exercises.
Programma esteso • Dispersed systems: colloidal systems: classification, properties, pharmaceutical applications. Suspensions: definition and properties: wettability (contact angle), sedimentation (Stokes’ Law), zeta potential, stability: flocculation, de-flocculation, caking; pharmaceutical suspensions, routes of administration, requirements, quality assurance tests. Emulsions: definition; tests for identification of emulsion type, emulsifying agents, stability: sedimentation, creaming, coalescence, phase inversion; manufacture methods; quality assurance tests. • Semisolid preparations: principles of rheology; classification of semisolid preparations: definitions, excipients, manufacture methods; dermatological formulations: trans-epidermal penetration; physicochemical and biological factors affecting penetration, percutaneous permeation and absorption. Transdermal therapeutic systems. Liquid crystals. • Nasal and pulmonary dosage forms: classification, characteristics, devices. • Suppositories: definitions and classification; suppository specific excipients; manufacture procedure (melting and compression methods); substitution factor; examples of suppository formulations; specific technological tests; rectal drug delivery systems. • Equipment for the production of semi-solid preparations. • Sterilization: definition, physical and chemical methods; sterility assurance level. • Secondary packaging. • Medical devices: definitions, requirements, classification, examples, CE mark. • Pharmaceutical legislation: Italian government; sources of law; penal and civil code. Supranational laws. Italian health organization. Italian Pharmacopoeia, European Pharmacopoeia and United States Pharmacopoeia. Management of health waste. Type of pharmacy, organic plan, health professions, ethical code. Classification of medicines. Medical prescription: type of prescription, formalisms, validity. Toxic substances: definition, supplying, storage, prescription, dispensation. Narcotic and mood-altering substances: Table 7 of Italian Pharmacopoeia, supplying, storage, documentation, dispensation. Cosmetic products: definition and general characteristics. Homeopathic products: definition and general characteristics. Authorization for marketing of medicinal products. Protection of the intellectual activity • Propaedeutic lectures and practical exercises in laboratory. Galenic preparations: preparation of magistral galenic formulations (suppositories, ovules, syrups, solutions, emulsions, suspensions, creams, ointments, gels, pastes). Composition of the price according to the National Price List of drugs, labelling and control of the preparation. Production of officinal galenic preparations: semisolid preparations for cutaneous application. Perfusion solutions of the pharmaceutical factories and of Hospital Pharmacy. Preparation of isosmotic and isotonic solutions. Quality control tests: control of the dosage forms (in particular solid dosage forms such as capsules and tablets and semisolid preparations) according to Pharmacopoeia requirements. Composition of the certificate of analysis. Use of software for the management of the professional activity.
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Course Politiche farmaceutiche
Course ID FA0063
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader DE ROSA MAURO
Teachers De Rosa Mauro
CFU 3
Teaching duration (hours) 24
Individual study time 51
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 4
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Course borrowed from FARMACIA (1506) - FA0063 Politiche farmaceutiche - NOVARA
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Course Rilascio e direzionamento di sostanze bioattive
Course ID FA0038
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PATTARINO Franco
Teachers Pattarino Franco
CFU 5
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 85
SSD CHIM/09 - FARMACEUTICO TECNOLOGICO APPLICATIVO
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 4
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student should be able to apply their knowledge for the identification and description of the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of advanced pharmaceutical forms, to use the specific language of this very specialized discipline and to evaluate the impact of the properties of the pharmaceutical vehicle on the drug activity
Contenuti It is an advanced teaching of pharmaceutical technology, aimed to describe the concepts, the strategies and the technologies employed in the production of therapeutic systems, pharmaceutical forms that are able to control the release of a drug, to modify its absorption and to target it to the site of action.
Testi di riferimento Colombo P et al. Principi di tecnologie farmaceutiche. 2° Ed, 2015, Ed. Ambrosiana. Aulton ME, Taylor K.M.G. Tecnologie farmaceutiche, 2015 EDRA LSWR. R. Notari - Biofarmaceutica e Farmacocinetica - Piccin Ed. L. Shargel and A.B.C. Yu - Biofarmaceutica e Farmacocinetica - Masson A.T. Florence, D.T. Attwood - Physicochemical Principles of Pharmacy - MacMillan Press, Hong Kong L. Lachman, H.A. Liebermann, J.L. Kanig - The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy - Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia M. Chasin and R. Langer - Biodegradable Polymers as Drug Delivery Systems - Marcel Dekker Inc. S. Vomero - Chimica Farmaceutica Applicata - La Gogliardica, Eur Roma Alexander Steinbüchel and Robert H. Marchessault - Biopolymers for medical and pharmaceutical applications - Wiley-VCH, vol. 1 e 2.
Obiettivi formativi The course objective is to provide students with knowledge about the characteristics and functions of therapeutic systems and the ability to understand which tools and methodologies to use for design, develop and manufacture the modified-release drug forms
Prerequisiti There are no prerequisites, but it is strongly recommended to attend the training only after having attended and/or passed the examinations of the courses of the first three years and in particular those of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology.
Metodi didattici The course will be provided in form of lectures. Occasionally, the students will be asked to answer questions about the treated subjects and to recover supplementary material from AIFA, EMA and FDA websites.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The examination will be carried out in oral form. To achieve the final vote, the student must demonstrate that he has understood, and he is able to use the fundamental concepts of each topic. The evaluation will be based on the following criteria: 1. knowledge and theoretical understanding and application of the studied subjects; 2. independence of judgment and ability to link the studied arguments; 3. communication skills and appropriateness in the use of technical language; 4. learning ability.
Programma esteso • Pharmacokinetics models: physiologically-based and compartmental-based PK models, kinetics parameters. Dosing and dosing adaptation in children, elderly and uremic patients. Bioavailability and bioequivalence: definitions, “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies. • Macromolecules as components of pharmaceutical formulations. Generalities and polymers’ classification, polymerization mechanisms and techniques. Natural and synthetic polymers in the pharmaceutical field, modified natural polymers. Polymeric pro-drugs • Drug delivery systems. Production. Drug release kinetics. Description of the different DDS: injectable systems, subcutaneous implants, intravaginal, intrauterine and intraocular devices, gastro-intestinal delivery systems, transdermal systems. • Biotechnological therapeutic products: formulation strategies, manufacturing technologies, quality controls
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Course METODI FISICI IN CHIMICA ORGANICA E LABORATORIO PESF
Course ID F0504
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PANZA Luigi
Teachers Panza Luigi
CFU 15
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA, CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa integrata
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Grading type V
Modules
Course ID Course SSD Teachers Agenda web
F0480METODI FISICI IN CHIMICA ORGANICA CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA Panza Luigi
F0481LABORATORIO PESF CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA Pirali Tracey
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Course METODI FISICI IN CHIMICA ORGANICA E LABORATORIO PESF: METODI FISICI IN CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course ID F0480
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PANZA Luigi
Teachers Panza Luigi
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 119
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Modulo di sola Frequenza
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category C
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Contenuti Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) Infrared spectroscopy (IR) Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) Mass spectrometry (MS)
Testi di riferimento R.M. Silverstein, F.X. Webster, Identificazione spettroscopica di composti organici, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana Additional textbook M. Hesse, H. Meier, B. Zeeh, Metodi spetroscopici in chimica organica, Edises G.F. Pedulli, Metodi fisici in chimica organica, Ed. Piccin H. Günther, NMR spectroscopy, Wiley Ed.
Obiettivi formativi Provide students with the knowledge of the physical principles underlying the different spectroscopic techniques and instrumentation used for the acquisition of spectra. The course is largely devoted to the interpretation of the spectra obtained with different techniques in order to allow the student to master the different spectroscopies especially from the practical point of view, allowing the student to identify unknown organic compounds. The course is complemented by demonstration visits to the various instruments available in the Department.
Prerequisiti Knowledge of the structures of the main classes of organic compounds
Metodi didattici Lectures with multimedia support and several exercises of structure elucidation.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written test usually containing a theoretical question and the identification of an unknown compound by analysis of IR, NMR and mass spectra, followed by a short oral exam. It will be possible, and highly recommended, to pass the exam through in-course tests.
Programma esteso Introduction to spectroscopic methods. Properties of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic spectrum. Absorption and emission spectroscopy. UV spectroscopy – Molecular energetic levels. Instrumentation. Typical parameters of an absorption spectrum. Electronic transitions and molecular orbitals. Main cromophores. Woodward rules. Law of Lambert-Beer. Uses of electronic spectroscopy. Mention to emission spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) – Traditional and Fourier transformation (FT-IR) spectrometers. The harmonic oscillator. Non-harmonicity and quantization. Type of vibrations. Instrumentation and sample preparation. The IR spectrum and characteristic absorptions of functional groups. Fingerprints region. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) – The nuclear spin. Theory of NMR spectroscopy, pulse tecnique and Fourier transformation. Relaxation. Spectral paraneters: chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, integration. 1H NMR: first order spectra. Analysis of main spin systems. Relationship between structure and chemical shift. Symmetry, chirality, dynamic phenomena and NMR spectrum. Spin decoupling and Nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe). 13C NMR: features of 13C nucleus. Decoupled, off-resonance, DEPT e APT spectra. Relationship between structure and chemical shift. Introduction to main 2D omo- and etheronuclear techniques. Mass spectrometry – Instrumentation. Ion sources: EI, CI, FD, DCI, FAB, APCI, IS, TS, ESI. Mass analyzers: electromagnetic, quadrupole, ion trap, TOF. MS-MS spectra. detectors. Chemical and isotopic mass. Mass and electronic parity. Molecular mass and molecular formula determination. Exact mass and resolution. Choice of ionization method for different class of compounds. Fragmentation and rearrangement reactions of the main classes of organic compounds. Spectra analysis and identification of organic compounds from mass spectra.
Course borrowed from CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0096 Metodi fisici in chimica organica - NOVARA
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Course METODI FISICI IN CHIMICA ORGANICA E LABORATORIO PESF: LABORATORIO PESF
Course ID F0481
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PIRALI Tracey
Teachers Pirali Tracey
CFU 8
Teaching duration (hours) 32
Individual study time 120
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Modulo di sola Frequenza
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category C
Year 4
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student at the end of the course will be able to search the scientific literature, find the desired reaction, read and understand the corresponding experimental procedure, make the calculations for determining the amounts of solvents and reagents, conducting the reaction in safe conditions, choose the right appartus/glassware, use the most appropriate synthetic tecnique, follow the reaction, isolate the product and purify it. The student will also know the main differences between a small-scale and large-scale synthesis.
Contenuti The significance of organic synthesis. Safe working in a chemical laboratory. Equipments. Solvents. The reagents. Inert atmosphere techniques. Conducting the reaction itself. Following the reaction. Working up reactions. Purification processes. Product characterization. The research notebook. Searching the literature. Non-conventional techniques. Process chemistry.
Testi di riferimento La chimica organica in laboratorio - Tomo I - M. d’Ischia - Piccin Chimica organica sperimentale - R.M. Roberts - Zanichelli Vogel’s textbook of practical organic chemistry - A. I. Vogel – Longman Practical process research and development - N. G. Anderson – Academic Press
Obiettivi formativi The aim of this course is to introduce the student to the practical organic synthesis. It consists of a series of lessons focused on the safety in laboratory and the main techniques used for the set up and control of the reaction, together with the purification of the product. All these methods are carried out in a series of practical experiments during the laboratory. Moreover, some aspects regarding the scientific literature search and process chemistry will be addressed. At the end of the course, the student will know how to work in a safe manner and will know the main techniques used in an organic synthesis laboratory; he/she will apply the acquired knowledge and understanding in the laboratory, reproducing a procedure for the set up of a reaction taken from the scientific literature in the laboratory; last, the student will be able to communicate his/her knowledge and understanding in the laboratory with the colleagues and the professor. The course will allow the student to gain the necessary judicial autonomy to work in a safe manner, to conduct an organic synthesis in the laboratory, and to search information in the scientific literature.
Prerequisiti Organic Chemistry 1, Drug Analysis 2
Metodi didattici The course in divided in three parts. The first part consists in frontal lessons that regard the safe working in a chemical laboratory and the main techniques used in an organic chemistry laboratory. At the end of this section, procedures of reactions taken from scientific papers are given to the students, translated and analysed at the blackboard. The second section is the laboratory, where the students practice with a series of reactions, using the techniques learned in the first part of the course. In the third part of the course aspects such as searching the literature, non-conventional techniques and process chemistry are handled. One of these lessons is given in the computer room, where the students have the opportunity to search information in the scientific literature using data bases, search engines and Sci-Finder. The frontal lessons are given with the support of power point slides, which are furnished to the students at the beginning of the course.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The student will give a written test with 30 questions before attending the laboratory. 25 questions concern the topics handled in the frontal lessons and the student has to demonstrate that he/she knows all the safety rules and the main techniques that he/she will apply in the laboratory. 5 questions consist in answering questions and solving exercises that regard a procedure in english taken from a scientific paper. During the laboraotry the student will be evaluated taking into account his/her commitment and the results gained. A second written test of 5 questions at the end of the course will regard the last topics of the course, such as searching the literature, non-conventional techniques and process chemistry. The final mark will take into account the results of the two written tests and of the laboratory activities.
Programma esteso The significance of organic synthesis. Safe working in a chemical laboratory. Contact with chemical reagents for ingestion, inhalation, direct absorption. Toxic, cancerogenic, teratogenic, flammable, explosive reagents. Equipments. Solvents. The effect of the solvent on chemical reactions. Selection, purification and drying of solvents. The reagents. Purification. Measurement. Inert atmosphere techniques. Conducting the reaction itself. Temperature control. How to heat and cool reactions. Reactions with gas reagents. Special reaction techniques. Catalytic hydrogenation. Reactions with liquid ammonia. Following the reaction. Thin layer cromatography (TLC). Working up reactions. Quenching. Extraction. Drying organic solutions. Filtration. Evaporation of the solvent. Purification processes. Column cromatography. Distillation. Crystallization. Sublimation. Product characterization. The research notebook. Examples of reaction procedures: how to make calculations and choose the right apparatus. Searching the literature. Non-conventional techniques. Green chemistry. Phase transfer catalysis. Ionic liquids. Microwaves. Ultrasonication. Biocatalysis. Industrial organic synthesis. Properties of an industrial synthesis. Process chemistry: laboratory synthesis, scale up, pilot plant, production. Conducting the reaction, work up and purification at industrial level.
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Course STATISTICA CON R
Course ID F0592
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader RINALDI Maurizio
Teachers Rinaldi Maurizio
CFU 2
Individual study time 26
SSD MAT/04 - MATEMATICHE COMPLEMENTARI
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 4
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student is expected -to be able to explain the knowledge acquired also in multidisciplinary field and therefore know how to analyze data and create professional graphic representations. - to be able to apply the methods learned even in different situations and if required have the tools to extend his knowledge in an autonomous way. - to acquire the ability to express the results of a data analysis both at a numerical and graphic level. - to acquire the ability to study and learn by choosing his path with originality and must be able to choose resources, possibly even online, useful for his study.
Contenuti The R software and its use to represent data and for statistical data analysis.
Testi di riferimento Reference material is posted on the DIR website
Obiettivi formativi *Knowledge and understanding The course aims to enrich the theoretical knowledge of statistics and probability with appropriate calculation data analysis. Aims of the course is also to display the results. The course in based on the free and open source software R. *Applying knowledge and understanding Students should be able to use the acquired skills even in multidisciplinary context and they should be able to analyse data and generate professional graphical representations. *Making judgements. At the end of the course students are expected to apply R even in different situations and that they have acquired the tools needed to extend their knowledge by themselves. * Communication skills At the end of the course students are expected to be able to express their results both numerically and graphically. * Learning skills. During the course students should learn how to study by choosing their personal path and should become able to choose the appropriate resources.
Prerequisiti The student should have the basic knowledge of mathematics and statistics
Metodi didattici Practical lectures are given in the computer lab.
Altre informazioni Reference material and additional informations are posted on the DIR website https://www.dir.uniupo.it/enrol/index.php?id=219
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Ongoing Quizzes and online Final Examination. Both count toward the final grade in a ratio 3/7.
Programma esteso R software. Elementary operations. Functions and graphs. Import, export in R. Data Structures, packages. Matrices, lists, arrays. The data frame. Working with sata: selecting elements, logical operators. Loops and conditionals. Missing data. Additional graphics packages: ggplot2. Regression line and regression curves. Anova. Pharmacokinetic models. Clustering. Simulations.
Course borrowed from FARMACIA (1506) - FA0078 Statistica con R - NOVARA
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Course Metodologie sintentiche avanzate
Course ID FA0056
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2014/2015
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PANZA Luigi
Teachers Panza Luigi
CFU 2
Teaching duration (hours) 16
Individual study time 34
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 4
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Students are expected to acquire knowledge of modern methods and synthesis strategies. They must also demonstrate that they are able to use the knowledge and skills acquired to critically evaluate literary work on total synthesis of complex molecules.
Contenuti Protecting groups Organoboron compounds Organosilicon compounds Organotin compounds Modern synthetic strategies
Testi di riferimento Slides provided by the teacher with references to chemical literature and to advanced books.
Obiettivi formativi Provide students with the knowledge of modern synthesis techniques to supplement the curricular preparation. Introduce students to the principles of modern organic synthesis and to their use
Prerequisiti Knowledge of the structure and of the reactivity of the main classes of organic compounds
Metodi didattici Lectures with multimedia support. Discussion of examples of total synthesis and exercises.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Oral exam based on the critical analysis of a literature article on the synthesis of complex molecules.
Programma esteso Protecting Groups: Introduction to the use of protecting groups in organic synthesis. Protecting groups for the main functional groups: introduction and removal. Orthogonality of protecting groups. Organoboron compounds: Introduction to the element. Boranes and their use in synthesis: alkyl, alchenyl- and alkinylborani. Preparation and reactivity. Outline of boronic acids and their use in cross coupling reactions. Outline of boron cluster. Organosilicon compounds: Introduction to the element. Silicones. Silyl enol ethers, vinylsilanes, epoxysilanes, allylsilanes and their use in organic synthesis. -Silyl carbanions. Trimethylsilyl cyanide. Trimethylsilyl triflate. Trimethylsilyl iodide. Organotin compounds. Introduction to the element. Stannilethers and acetals. Vinyl and allyl stannanes and their use in organic synthesis. Hydrides of tin. Alkynyl stannanes. Modern synthetic strategies. A brief history of organic synthesis. Retrosynthesis: definitions of concepts of synthons, retrons, disconnections, transformations. Retrosynthetic analysis. Guidelines for the application of the different strategies used in the retrosynthetic analysis: strategies based on structure, functional groups or processes. Examples of total synthesis.
Course borrowed from CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0056 Metodologie sintentiche avanzate - NOVARA
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Course Analisi dei farmaci II
Course ID FA0030
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GROSA Giorgio
Teachers Grosa Giorgio
CFU 8
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 124
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 3
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi At the end of the course, which also includes laboratory activity, the student will have knowledge of the main instrumental methods of quantitative analysis related to the determination of the purity of raw materials as well as to that of the content of active ingredients in pharmaceuticals at release and also during the stability studies. In particular, the student is able to apply the knowledge to real problems (quantitative analysis and quality control of pharmaceuticals) both from a practical point of view and from the calculation and interpretation of analytical data
Contenuti • General aspects of the pharmaceutical analysis • Drug chemical stability: forced degradation studies and stability studies of drug substance and drug product • Methods of analysis for the identification of drugs: characters, melting point, optical rotation, infrared spectrometry (IR) and TLC. • Methods of analysis for the determination of drugs in drug substance and drug product: UV-Vis spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry; theoretical and instrumental aspects; method development. • Chromatographic methods. HPLC: theoretical and instrumental aspects; method development. • Calculation in pharmaceutical analysis. • Laboratory practices: identification of drugs whose monograph are reported in the current European pharmacopoeia; determination of the content of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in drug substance and drug products
Testi di riferimento - European Pharmacopoeia current edition - Analisi Chimico Farmaceutica F. Savelli, O. Bruno, Piccin, Padova - Analisi Farmaceutica, D. G. Watson, EDRA LSWR, Milano - Analisi Farmaceutica Qualitativa” A. Carta, M.G. Mamolo, F. Novelli e S. Piras Edises, Napoli - Analisi Farmaceutica, Metodi di riconoscimento e di separazione. V. Cavrini e V. Andrisano Società Editrice Esculapio, Bologna. - Chimica Analitica Quantitativa. D. C. Harris, Zanichelli
Obiettivi formativi The student, attending the course, acquire the basic knowledge of the problems inherent chemical stability of drugs and analytical techniques used in the stability studies. The laboratory exercises allow the student to apply the analytical methods to real pharmaceutical samples. In addition, the proposed calculation exercises allow the student to calculate and evaluate correctly the results obtained in the laboratory practices.
Prerequisiti Course teaching is based on the assumption that students have previous knowledge from basal courses in inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry. Moreover the attendance to the previous course Drug Analysis-1 is mandatory . Special IT knowledge is not a requirement, but all students should know the use of electronic spreadsheet Excel for the statistical evaluation of data.
Metodi didattici The theoretical lessons will be held partially by using slides. Calculation exercises are done by solving typical problems in pharmaceutical analysis field. The laboratory activity will be carried out in laboratories equipped with specific reagents and analytical instrumentation (UV- and FTIR spectrophotometers, HPLC apparatus, polarimeter, melting point apparatus etc.), suitable for the drug quality control. Statistical evaluation of analytical data was done in computer laboratory.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The learning assessment consists of: individual written examination (2 hr) plus the evaluation of the results obtained in laboratory practices. The written part consists of: 10 questions (1.6 points each, with the partial evaluation of the response), two questions (2 points each) and two calculation exercises (up to a maximum of 10 points in total). The first ten questions are related to the theory of the stability of drugs and chromatographic (HPLC and TLC) and spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis and fluorimetry) and the procedures of the laboratory exercises. The questions (2 points each) and the calculation exercises are related to the calculation and interpretation of the results obtained in the laboratory practices or in real cases from pharmaceutical analysis field
Programma esteso Pharmaceutical analysis: general aspects; main phases of a method of analysis; the role of the matrix and interfering substances in pharmaceutical analysis. Drug chemical stability: main degradation reactions. Forced degradation studies. Long-term and accelerated stability studies of drug substance and drug product: protocol assessment. Assays and analytical controls in the stability studies. Analytical methods in pharmaceutical analysis: UV-VIS spectrophotometry: general aspects, Beer's law, inherent limitations, instrumental and chemical deviations. Method development: selectivity and linearity (calibration curves). Calibration of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer according to the European Pharmacopoeia. Methods based on light emission: fluorescence and phosphorescence. Spectrofluorimetry: general aspects. Beer's law applied to fluorimetry, method development. Polarimetry: General and instrumental aspects of the technique; optical rotation, specific optical rotation. optical purity. Melting point determination: experimental aspects of the technique. Chromatographic methods: HPLC. Instrumental aspects: pumping system, detectors (Uv-vis, FL, ECD). Stationary phases: silica and chemically modified silica. Characterization of chromatographic peaks: evaluation of asymmetry (tailing factor and asymmetry factor), efficiency (number of theoretical plates), separation factor and resolution. Role of pH in the HPLC analysis. Calculations related to the buffer solutions used in mobile phase preparation. Main operating parameters of a HPLC method of analysis. Method development. Pharmaceutical analysis calculations. Resolution of problems regarding the analysis of active ingredients and their formulations. Laboratory practices: Determination of average weight and weight uniformity. Determination of the active ingredient (Fe2+) in a formulation of ferrous gluconate in sachets. Determination of the impurity (Fe3+) in a formulation of ferrous gluconate in sachets. Determination of loss on drying using thermo gravimetric balance. Determination of pH of a pharmaceutical powder when reconstituted in aqueous solution. Determination of percent content of furosemide in a solution for injections. Determination of percent content of troxerutin in drug substance.
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Course Biologia molecolare con laboratorio
Course ID FA0031
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ROSSI Franca
Teachers Rossi Franca
CFU 6
Teaching duration (hours) 48
Individual study time 102
SSD BIO/11 - BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 3
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Upon successful completion the Course, the Students will have acquired knowledge and understanding of the topics covered and developed the ability to apply such knowledge autonomously, in addressing new topics, focused on the molecular aspects of cell biology. In detail, the Students will know and understand: a) the composition, distribution and structural organisation of nucleic acids and genomes; b) the molecular mechanisms responsible for the transmission of genetic information and for gene expression in the correct time, space and way; c) the main levels of integration of these phenomena; and d) the main consequences of a malfunctioning of these phenomena and/or their de-regulation. The Students will be able to apply the acquired knowledge to other areas such as a) the research of the molecular basis of diseases, b) the development of new small-molecule or biotechnological drugs targeting functions acting in genome maintenance and gene expression, and c) the development of new methods of molecular analysis. During the Course the Students have been also trained to integrate and re-evaluate the notions previously acquired in other courses (e.g. Biochemistry, Applied Biochemistry, General Biology) in the context and from the standpoint of molecular biology; therefore, they will be able to apply the same method to studying other disciplines (e.g. Pharmacology, Drug Design and Discovery, Structural Biology) that they will encounter in the continuation of their studies. Finally, the Students will be able to communicate Molecular Biology notions and concepts using the appropriate terminology.
Contenuti The first part of the course introduces the Student to the fundamental discoveries in Molecular Biology and their timeline, the main areas of application, the structure of nucleic acids and the organization and evolution of genes and genomes. The following lectures will cover the molecular details of genomes replication and maintenance, putting a particular emphasis on the repair and recombination of genetic material. The description of mechanisms required to express the genetic information will follow: the transcription and its regulation, the processing and maturation of different classes of RNA, the protein synthesis and its control, the post-translational modifications of proteins, the processes of proteins sorting and turn-over, and basic concepts of cell signaling, focusing on eukaryotic systems. The final part of the course will describe some approaches, techniques and models that are currently adopted to study the molecular biology of the cell.
Testi di riferimento Francesco Amaldi et al. "Biologia Molecolare" Ed. CEA ISBN 978-88-08-18567-9 Selected reviews and full papers
Obiettivi formativi The Molecular Biology course aims to provide the Student with an up-to-date view of a topic that, perhaps more than others, represents as an area of ​​integration of knowledge in the biology field, with deep medical and biotechnological implications. By the end of the Course the Student will have achieved a solid and integrated knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that, by acting in a finely coordinated way, are responsible for the proper flow and expression of the genetic information in biological systems, under physiological and pathological conditions
Prerequisiti An adequate knowledge of cell biology and biochemistry is required.
Metodi didattici Lectures and seminars.
Altre informazioni N/A
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written (multiple answer questions and open questions) The first exercise consists of 13-15 multiple-choice questions (0.25 pt to each correct choice; 1 point to each correct answer). The second exercise asks the Student to illustrate a molecular mechanism involved in a biological/biotechnological process (e.g., a recombination pathway or the mechanism of an enzyme): 6-8 points. The third exercise aims at verifying the Student's ability to critically discuss and integrate the learned notions (both "theoretical" and "applicative") in the form of a short assay (eg "The levels of regulation and integration of gene expression on eukaryotes"; "The development and the state-of-the-art of DNA sequencing methods "): 8-10 points.
Programma esteso The timeline of the molecular biology. Nucleic acids structure. Chromosomes, Chromatin, and the Nucleosome. DNA topology and topoisomerases. Genes and genomes. The evolving concept of gene. Pseudogenes. Unique or almost unique sequences. Repeated DNA and highly repetitive sequences. Transposable elements and mechanisms for transposition. The mitochondrial DNA. DNA replication: a molecular view. The replication origins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their identification. The replication machinery: analogies and differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The mechanistic aspects of replication. Mechanism of action and role of telomerases. Integration and control of replication during the cell cycle progression. Mutations and agents that can induce mutagenic stress. DNA repair mechanisms: an overview. Examples of direct DNA damage repair. DNA repair multi-step pathways: Base Excision Repair (BER) and Nucleotide Excision Repair (Global Gene, GG-NER and Transcription-coupled, TC-NER). Mismatch-repair (MMR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Double strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The cross-talk between DNA replication and repair. ATR and ATM. An overview of RNA synthesis in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. RNA polymerases. Transcription initiation and regulation of the transcription machinery. Basal transcription factors, activators, repressors, co-activators and co-repressors. Enhancers, silencers and insulators. Fluorescent proteins as in vivo and in vitro reporters. DNA binding domains: description and examples. The "histone code" and the regulation of gene expression. Chromatin remodeling. The maturation of rRNA, tRNA, miRNA, autocatalytic RNAs (ribozymes). The mRNAs processing: molecular mechanisms of capping, polyadenylation and splicing. The spliceosome. Group I and II auto-splicing introns. Splicing of tRNAs. Trans-splicing. Alternative Splicing. RNA editing. The nuclear/cytoplasm traffic of macromolecules. Protein synthesis: basic concepts and molecular mechanisms of translation. Protein synthesis control. Maskin's role in modulating the "translatability" of RNA. Non-stop mediated decay and nonsense mediated decay phenomena. Riboswitch, miRNA, and IncRNA. Modulation of gene expression based on mRNA distribution/polarization. Gene silencing strategies for the study of cell biology. Overview of the most widely used molecular techniques for gene expression analysis. Post-translational modifications, with particular emphasis on molecular mechanisms of ubiquitination and sumoylation. Signal transduction: characteristics and properties of signaling pathways and their components. The molecular basis of signal integration.
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Course Metodi fisici in chimica organica
Course ID FA0096
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PANZA Luigi
Teachers Panza Luigi
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 119
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 3
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Students must know the main features of the spectroscopies shown. They must also demonstrate to be able to use the knowledge acquired for the structural determination of complex organic compounds by combining in a critical way the various information deducible from the different techniques.
Contenuti Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) Infrared spectroscopy (IR) Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) Mass spectrometry (MS)
Testi di riferimento R.M. Silverstein, F.X. Webster, Identificazione spettroscopica di composti organici, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana Additional textbook M. Hesse, H. Meier, B. Zeeh, Metodi spetroscopici in chimica organica, Edises H. Günther, NMR spectroscopy, Wiley Ed.
Obiettivi formativi Provide students with the knowledge of the physical principles underlying the different spectroscopic techniques and instrumentation used for the acquisition of spectra. The course is largely devoted to the interpretation of the spectra obtained with different techniques in order to allow the student to master the different spectroscopies especially from the practical point of view, allowing the student to identify unknown organic compounds. The course is complemented by demonstration visits to the various instruments available in the Department.
Prerequisiti Knowledge of the structures of the main classes of organic compounds
Metodi didattici Lectures with multimedia support and several exercises of structure elucidation. Visit to the instruments with practice.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written test usually containing a theoretical question and the identification of an unknown compound by analysis of IR, NMR and mass spectra, followed by a short oral exam. It will be possible, and highly recommended, to pass the exam through in-course tests.
Programma esteso Introduction to spectroscopic methods. Properties of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic spectrum. Absorption and emission spectroscopy. UV spectroscopy – Molecular energetic levels. Instrumentation. Typical parameters of an absorption spectrum. Electronic transitions and molecular orbitals. Main cromophores. Woodward rules. Law of Lambert-Beer. Uses of electronic spectroscopy. Mention to emission spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) – Traditional and Fourier transformation (FT-IR) spectrometers. The harmonic oscillator. Non-harmonicity and quantization. Type of vibrations. Instrumentation and sample preparation. The IR spectrum and characteristic absorptions of functional groups. Fingerprints region. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) – The nuclear spin. Theory of NMR spectroscopy, pulse tecnique and Fourier transformation. Relaxation. Spectral paraneters: chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, integration. 1H NMR: first order spectra. Analysis of main spin systems. Relationship between structure and chemical shift. Symmetry, chirality, dynamic phenomena and NMR spectrum. Spin decoupling and Nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe). 13C NMR: features of 13C nucleus. Decoupled, off-resonance, DEPT e APT spectra. Relationship between structure and chemical shift. Introduction to main 2D omo- and etheronuclear techniques. Mass spectrometry – Instrumentation, hints. Chemical and isotopic mass. Mass and electronic parity. Molecular mass and molecular formula determination. Exact mass and resolution. Choice of ionization method for different class of compounds. Fragmentation and rearrangement reactions of the main classes of organic compounds. Spectra analysis and identification of organic compounds from mass spectra. Illustration of the structural determination of a natural substance.
Course borrowed to CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - F0480 METODI FISICI IN CHIMICA ORGANICA - NOVARA
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Course Metodologie avanzate in analisi chimica-tossicologica
Course ID FA0036
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ALLEGRONE Gianna
Teachers Allegrone Gianna
CFU 5
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 85
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 3
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Knowledge of advanced analytical techniques of chromatography and mass spectrometry and of polluting substances. Ability to apply such knowledge and skills in the determination of bioactive compounds in complex matrices
Contenuti Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Interfacing problems Pollutants and related methods of analysis Pesticides. Dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). POP list
Testi di riferimento D.C.Harris “Quantitative chemical analysis” ed.Zanichelli Watson, “Pharmaceutical analysis”, 3th ed. Elsevier C. Baird “ Enviromental chemistry” Freeman and Company New York Watson and Sparkma “Introduction to Mass Spectrometry” ed.Wiley
Obiettivi formativi Knowledge of advanced analytical techniques applicable to the determination of drugs, pollutants and bioactive substances present in complex matrices
Prerequisiti Basic knowledge of organic chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis
Metodi didattici Lessons
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The exam includes a written test followed by an eventual oral interview. The written test, which lasts 90 minutes consists of 5 open questions. The interview,at the discretion of the teacher or the student's request, initially involves the review of the written exam and then a question on a topic of the program.
Programma esteso Principles of gas chromatography. Gas Chromatography: injectors, columns, detectors. Selectivity, efficiency, resolution. Van Deemter equation. Retention indices: Kovats indices Headspace methods: static, dynamic, SPME Principles of mass spectrometry. Sources: IE, CI, ESI, APCI, Maldi. Analyzers: magnetic, double focusing, quadrupole, ion trap, TOF Resolving power and resolution. Tandem mass spectrometry. High resolution mass spectrometry. Mass spectrum. Molecular ion and pseudomolecolar ion, isotopic abundance, fragmentations. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Definition of the gas chromatographic method. Definition of the spectrometric method. Full scan, SIM, MS / MS. Qualitative analysis. Use of database. Quantitative analysis. Calibration curve. Internal standard method. Isootopic dilution Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Interfacing problems Qualitative and quantitative analysis. Definition of the chromatographic method. Definition of the spectrometric method Pollutants and related methods of analysis Pesticides. Chlorinated, organophosphorus, carbamates insecticides. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids insecticides. Erbicides: a) interfering with the growth factors of the plant: auxinic herbicides; b) interfering with the photosynthesis process: triazine, cloroacetamidi, urea derivatives, dipiridilici derivatives; c) interfering the synthesis of aromatic amino acids: glyphosate; d) interfering the cell division: sulfonylureas. Inorganic and metal organic fungicides, organic fungicides: dithiocarbamates, benzimidazoles, and diphenyl. Repellents. Dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans: structures, sources of pollution, toxicity. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB): structures, sources of pollution, toxicity, methods of disposal POP list
Course borrowed from CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0036 Metodologie avanzate in analisi chimica-tossicologica - NOVARA
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Course Metodologie sintentiche avanzate
Course ID FA0056
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PANZA Luigi
Teachers Panza Luigi
CFU 2
Teaching duration (hours) 16
Individual study time 34
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 3
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Students are expected to acquire knowledge of modern methods and synthesis strategies. They must also demonstrate that they are able to use the knowledge and skills acquired to critically evaluate literary work on total synthesis of complex molecules.
Contenuti Protecting groups Organoboron compounds Organosilicon compounds Organotin compounds Modern synthetic strategies
Testi di riferimento Slides provided by the teacher with references to chemical literature and to advanced books.
Obiettivi formativi Provide students with the knowledge of modern synthesis techniques to supplement the curricular preparation. Introduce students to the principles of modern organic synthesis and to their use
Prerequisiti Knowledge of the structure and of the reactivity of the main classes of organic compounds
Metodi didattici Lectures with multimedia support. Discussion of examples of total synthesis and exercises.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Oral exam based on the critical analysis of a literature article on the synthesis of complex molecules.
Programma esteso Protecting Groups: Introduction to the use of protecting groups in organic synthesis. Protecting groups for the main functional groups: introduction and removal. Orthogonality of protecting groups. Organoboron compounds: Introduction to the element. Boranes and their use in synthesis: alkyl, alchenyl- and alkinylborani. Preparation and reactivity. Outline of boronic acids and their use in cross coupling reactions. Outline of boron cluster. Organosilicon compounds: Introduction to the element. Silicones. Silyl enol ethers, vinylsilanes, epoxysilanes, allylsilanes and their use in organic synthesis. -Silyl carbanions. Trimethylsilyl cyanide. Trimethylsilyl triflate. Trimethylsilyl iodide. Organotin compounds. Introduction to the element. Stannilethers and acetals. Vinyl and allyl stannanes and their use in organic synthesis. Hydrides of tin. Alkynyl stannanes. Modern synthetic strategies. A brief history of organic synthesis. Retrosynthesis: definitions of concepts of synthons, retrons, disconnections, transformations. Retrosynthetic analysis. Guidelines for the application of the different strategies used in the retrosynthetic analysis: strategies based on structure, functional groups or processes. Examples of total synthesis.
Course borrowed to CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0056 Metodologie sintentiche avanzate - NOVARA
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Course Farmacologia generale e farmacologia molecolare
Course ID FA0027
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GENAZZANI Armando
Teachers Condorelli Fabrizio, Genazzani Armando
CFU 10
Teaching duration (hours) 80
Individual study time 170
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 3
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student will know the general pricciples of pharmacology and will be able to apply this knowledge in more advanced pharmacology and medicinal chemistry courses
Contenuti General principles of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. General principles of neurotransmission and drugs acting on synaptic and junctional levels. General operating principles of various types of membrane receptors. General principles of intracellular signals. General principles of transcriptional control and execution. General principles of cell proliferation and cell death.
Testi di riferimento Notes, hand-outs and lecture slides will be fundamental. Alongside, one of the following textbooks is advisable: • Farmacologia generale e molecolare. Clementi Francesco - Fumagalli Guido. UTET editore. • Goodman and Gilman: Le Basi Farmacologiche della Terapia. McGraw Hill.
Obiettivi formativi This course is part of the following set of interlinked courses with a continuum of objectives: - Farmacognosia e Fitoterapia (II year) - Farmacologia e Farmacoterapia (IV year) - Tossicologia e Laboratorio di Farmacologia (IV year) - Opzione farmacologica (pre-clinica e clinica; IV year) The course, in specific, aims to: Supply the student with the fundamental notions of pharmacology Give the student all the elements to study more advanced courses regarding drugs and pharmacology. Acquire the ability to critically appraise drugs. - To provide basic knowledge on the general aspects of the drug (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters) as well as of the molecular basis of cell function in the perspective of possible pharmacotherapy applications, providing the critical tools for understanding the experimental approaches in the identification and characterization of drugs.
Prerequisiti There are no formal requirements, although having acquired the basis of anatomy, biology, pathology, chemistry, physiology and biochemistry is necessary to gain maximum benefit from the course.
Metodi didattici The course contents will be transmitted through oral presentations supported by explanatory multimedia about the different topics included in the program. It will be stimulated the active participation of the student through the recall of concepts already addressed in other courses, which relate to various aspects of the drug and the disease.
Altre informazioni none
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Oral examination. Oral examination is performed by asking to the student some questions related to topics indicated in the course programme and given during the specific classes. To obtain positive results, the student must show a sufficient level of knowledge and of associative capabilities related to the different arguments; he/she must show that he understood and knows the critical concepts of the various topics. Greater levels of knowledge together with a demontrated capability of application of this background to the practice leads to an evalutation superior to that required for the minimal score. To obtain a high level of evaluation the student has to be able to utilize his/her knowledge to debate deeply some of the critical aspects of the different topics.
Programma esteso PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY Definition of pharmacology Classification and nomenclature Chemical drugs , Biological drugs, Advanced therapies Routes of administration Pharmacokinetics: ADME, drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, main formulas and parameters in PK Examples of drugs to exemplify the importance of pharmacokinetics (e.g. local anaesthetics) Pharmacodynamics, dose-response curves, therapuetic indexes, drug-receptor interaction and theories, binding investigations, Pharmacological modulation of receptors. The main neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, catecholamines, serotonin, GABA, glutamate Preclinical and clinical studies Individual response to drugs MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY Receptors and signal transduction: Overview (membrane and intra-cellular receptors), control of the localization, neurotransmitter release mechanisms, ion channels, channel receptors, G-protein coupled receptors, receptors for growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, second messengers (e.g.: cAMP, cGMP, calcium, IP3). Pharmacological modulation of the response: agonists, antagonists, blockers, inhibitors, partial agonists, inverse agonists. Examples: cholinergic system, GABA receptor, local anesthetics The immune system: immunocompetent cell populations, cytokines and receptors, biotech drugs of immunological relevance Modulation of gene expression: - Chromatin and its structural organization - Epigenetic modifications (e.g.:methylation, acetylations) - Gene Transcription - Intracellular Receptors - MicroRNA regulating the transcriptional program - Introduction to Gene Therapy Control of cell proliferation: - Cell cycle - Apoptosis - General aspects of antineoplastic chemotherapy
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Course Tecnologia e Legislazione Farmaceutiche I
Course ID FA0032
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PATTARINO Franco
Teachers Pattarino Franco
CFU 10
Teaching duration (hours) 80
Individual study time 170
SSD CHIM/09 - FARMACEUTICO TECNOLOGICO APPLICATIVO
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 3
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student must demonstrate how to apply the acquired knowledge for identifying and describing the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of pharmaceutical forms, how to use the specific language of this discipline, how to identify the role played by the components of the pharmaceutical vehicle and to evaluate how they affect the properties of the medicament and the activity of the active ingredient.
Contenuti •The teaching is aimed to illustrate principles, strategies and technologies used for the development and production of solid and liquid dosage forms employed in the therapeutic field, with a particular focus on the industrial medicines. The structure and the characteristics of the different pharmaceutical forms, the properties of the ingredients and their impact on the product performance, the processes employed by both pharmacists and industrial companies for their production and control will be described.
Testi di riferimento Colombo P et al. Principi di tecnologie farmaceutiche. 2° Ed, 2015, Ed. Ambrosiana. Aulton ME, Taylor K.M.G. Tecnologie farmaceutiche, 2015 EDRA LSWR. Ansel, HC et al. Principi di calcolo farmaceutico. Quindicesima edizione. 2017 Ed. Edra. Minghetti P, Marchetti M. Legislazione farmaceutica. Ed. Ambrosiana. Farmacopea Ufficiale Italiana edizione vigente. Farmacopea Europea edizione vigente. Lachman L, Lieberman H, Kanig J. The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy. Ed. Lea & Febiger, USA. Fabris L, Rigamonti S. La fabbricazione industriale dei medicinali. Ed. Esculapio, Bologna. Manuali Tecnici A.F.I., Ed. OEMF, Milano.
Obiettivi formativi The course objective is to provide students with knowledge about the characteristics and functions of conventional drug dosage forms and the ability to understand which tools and methodologies are used for their development and manufacturing
Prerequisiti There are no prerequisites, but it is strongly recommended to attend the training only after having passed the examinations of the courses of the first two years
Metodi didattici The course will be provided in form of lectures. Occasionally, the students will be asked to answer questions about the treated subjects and to recover supplementary material from AIFA, EMA and FDA websites.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The examination will be carried out in oral form. To achieve the final vote, the student must demonstrate that he has understood, and he is able to use the fundamental concepts of each topic. The evaluation will be based on the following criteria: 1. knowledge and theoretical understanding and application of the studied subjects; 2. independence of judgment and ability to link the studied arguments; 3. communication skills and appropriateness in the use of technical language; 4. learning ability.
Programma esteso • Pharmaceutical dosage forms (PDF): definition of dosage form; principles of biopharmaceutics (drug delivery, absorption, distribution, metabolization and elimination; concept of bioavailability); route of drug administration (oral sublingual, buccal, rectal, transdermal, nasal, pulmonary, parenteral, topical, ophtalmic, vaginal route); concept of preformulation. • Pharmaceutical powders: definition; powder properties: particle shape, particle size, particle size analysis methods (sieve methods, microscope methods, Coulter Counter, sedimentation methods, laser light scattering methods) and particle size distribution, surface area and methods for the determination of the surface area; volume; density; porosity; flowability properties. • Materials employed in pharmaceutical field. Measure, control and regulation of temperature, pressure and flow. Ventilated, controlled climate and clean rooms. • Processes for solid dosage forms: milling, seiving, granulation, desiccation. • Granules: formulation of granules; introduction to granulation, granulation methods (wet granulation and dry granulation) and granulation mechanisms; effervescent granules, coated granules, modified release granules, gastroresistant granules; specific technological assays. • Tablets: definition; characteristics; classification (uncoated tablets, multiplayer tablets, coated tablets, effervescent tablets, chewable tablets, soluble and dispersible tablets, oral disisntegrating tablets, sublingual tablets, gastro-resistant tablets, modified release tablets); excipients for tablets (fillers, binders, lubricants, antiadherents, glidants, disintegrants, colourants, flavours, modified release agents); examples of tablet formulations; specific technological tests; coating of tablets (sugar coating, film coating, press coating). • Capsules: definition; hard gelatin capsules: excipients, shell manufacturing procedure and capsule filling; soft gelatin capsules; specific technological tests. • Manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical dosage forms: powders, tablets, coated tablets, capsules. • Solutions: properties of solutions; surfactants, interfacial tension, HLB; pharmaceutical solutions and excipients; aqueous and non-aqueous solutions; syrups; quality assurance tests; extractive preparations: hydrolates, essences, alcoholates, exctracts, infusions, tinctures, decoctions. • Parenteral dosage forms: classification; requirements; vehicles; packaging; insulin formulations; small volume preparations (SVP) and large volume preparations (LVP); parenteral nutrition; powders for parenteral administration. Sterilization: definition, physical and chemical methods; sterility assurance level. • Ophthalmic dosage forms: definition; eye anatomy and physiology; requirements and specific characteristics of ophthalmic preparations; eye drops; semisolid ophthalmic preparations; ophthalmic inserts; eye-baths; specific technological tests. • Manufacturing processes of liquid not parenteral and parenteral forms. Extemporaneous liquid pharmaceutical forms. Freeze-drying: principles, equipment, control and regulation tools. • Transfer of solids, liquids and gases in the pharmaceutical plant
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Course Chimica farmaceutica e progettazione del farmaco I
Course ID FA0029
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader TRON Gian Cesare
Teachers Tron Gian Cesare, Massarotti Alberto
CFU 12
Teaching duration (hours) 96
Individual study time 204
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 3
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The students at the end of the course will know the key topics relating to medicinal chemistry and at the same time they will be able to present and discuss the general strategies for the drug design.
Contenuti The course is divided into two parts. In the first part, the course will deal with the processes inherent the discovery, optimization and validation of molecules with biological activity. ( Lead discovery , lead optimization , QSAR , molecular modeling , ADMET ) . In the second part different classes of drugs will be studied considering the rationale for their discovery, the mechanism of action, the structure activity relationships, and the therapeutic use . In particular they will be taken into consideration drugs that act on the central and peripheral nervous system, anticoagulants, and antidiabetic drugs.
Testi di riferimento G.L. Patrick An Introduction to medicinal chemistry (III Eds.) Oxford E. Stevens Medicinal Chemistry: The modern drug discovery process, Ed Pearson
Obiettivi formativi The goals of the course of Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design I are, in the first part of the course, to introduce students to the key topics relating to medicinal chemistry and at the same time present and discuss general strategies for the drug design. In the second part, the goal will be to present and discuss several classes of drugs, with the aim of rationalizing their discovery. At the end of the course, the student will have gain the essential stock of knowledge with regard to the drug design and the issues relating to their development. He/she will be also able to read, in a critical manner, scientific articles on medicinal chemistry.
Prerequisiti Exam preparatory Organic Chemistry 2
Metodi didattici The course consists of lectures with slides show. Some topics will be deepened with videos in English and Italian.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The learning assessment consists of an oral examination. In particular, six questions will be posed to the students. The questions will be randomly chosen by a computer from 150 questions. These questions will be given to the students at the beginning of the course and they can always be downloaded in DIR. Each question has a maximum score of 5. The questions cover all the topics which have been discussed during the lessons.
Programma esteso Definition of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics. The concept of receptor. Receptor theory of Langley and Ehrlich. Definition of pharmacophore. Receptor theory of Fisher. Agonists, partial agonists, antagonists. Inverse agonists. Reversible antagonism, irreversible antagonistm, allosteric antagonism. Binding studies and the Scatchard plot. Dose-response curves for agonists. Effectiveness and affinity. Clarke Ariens and Stephenson receptor theories. The spare receptors. Dose-response curves for competitive antagonist. Theory of adaptation induced receptor. Receptor theory of the two-stage model. The enzymes. Acid-basic and nucleophilic catalysis mechanism. Reversible inhibitors, irreversible, allosteric. chemical functional groups useful for irreversible inhibition. Transition state inhibitors (examples). Suicide inhibitors (examples). Michaelis-Menten equation. Lineweaver-Burk equation. Competitive inhibitors, non-competitive, competitive, mixed. How drugs interact with receptors. Thermodynamics of interaction. The enthalpy and entropy contribution. Ionic bond. Hydrogen bond. Intramolecular hydrogen bond. Dipole-dipole interaction. Dipole-dipole induced. Covalent bond. Charge transfer. π -π interactions and π-cation. Halogen bond. Hydrophobic interactions. The chirality in drugs. Types of chirality. Definitions three-point Easson and Steadmann. hypothesis. Pfeiffer rule. eudismica analysis. Use of chirality in pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral switch. Reverse enzymatic configurational, the case of ibuprofen. When to use a chiral drug. When to use a racemic drug. The problem of thalidomide. Lead discovery. Me-too compounds.. Functional groups to avoid. The problem of promiscuity. The problem of latent hits. Natural products. Amplification of the side effects. Fragment-based ligand design. Lead optimization. Pro-drug. Definition. Accidental Pro-drugs. Pro-drug in two stages, three stages, mutual pro-drug and pro-drug polymer. Pro-drug to improve the stability (examples). Pro-drug to prevent the metabolism of the first passage (example of bambuterol). Pro-drug to increase the duration of action (examples). Pro-drug to increase the solubility (examples). Pro-drug to improve the organoleptic characteristics (examples). Pro-drug to improve absorption (examples). Pro-drug to direct a drug (examples). Pro-drug to direct the drug in the CNS (examples). Pro-drug of alcohols, thiols and acids. Pro-drug for amides, imides and compounds with NH groups. Definition and examples of hard and soft drug. Isosterism and bioisosterism. Isosters of Langmuoir. Isosters of Grimm. Isosters of Erlenmeyer. The bioisostere concept. Classical and nonclassical isosters. Isosteric substitutions: H-D, H-F, F-OH, NH2-OH, OH-SH. The lethal synthesis. Divalent, trivalent and tetravalent isosteric substitutions. Non-classical bioisosteres of aromatic rings, esters, amides, carboxylic acids, phenols, catechols, carbonyls. isosters reversed. Isosterism carbon-silicon. The differences between silicon and carbon. Isosterism C-B and C-Se. Disjunctive approaches. molecular and simplifications on chiral centers.. Conjunctive approaches.. Introduction of cycles (see part on rigid analogues). Benzo-cracking or dissociation of the rings. Restructuring of cyclic systems. Introduction of new functional groups. Tactics. Change the distribution. Increase the metabolic stability. Synthesis of irreversible inhibitors. Functionalization of the aromatic rings. Repositioning of functional groups. Rational. Tactics. Vinilogy. Introduction, examples and rational method. Limits. Molecular doubling (twin-drugs). Rational and examples. The symmetry as a basis in the design of inhibitors of HIV protease. Molecular hybridization. Ideas, limitations. The concept of the balanced hybrid. Examples. Hybrids from the union of pharmacophoric groups of natural origin. The rigid analogues. Ideas, Benefits. Locate the active conformation. The case of acetylcholine, the case of dopamine. Stabilize a high energy conformation. Improve selectivity. Increase the power (the negative entropic effect). metabolic stabilization. Synthesis of partial agonists. Locate receptor subclasses. Examples. Disadvantages. Tactics. "Template" resistant to the hydrophobic collapse. QSAR (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP) MOLECULAR MODELLING Use of computer in the drug-discovery. 3d structures, conformational analysisi and energy minimization. Molecular dimensions and properties. Database of chemical compounds. Molecular similarity. X-ray structure. Ligand Based and Structure Based Drug Design. Virtual screening. De novo drug design. 3D-QSAR. 3D pharmacophore identification. Molecular docking. NMR spettroscopy. X-ray resolution and B-factor. The Protein Data Bank. Search a protein structure, the .pdb file. PyMOL, basic use of the software. Cholinergic. Adrenergic. Antidepressants. Antiparkinson. General anesthetics. Local anesthetics. Anticoagulants and coagulants. Hypoglycemic. Anxiolytics. Barbiturates.
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Course Tossicologia e laboratorio di farmacologia
Course ID FA0039
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2015/2016
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GENAZZANI Armando
Teachers Genazzani Armando
CFU 6
Teaching duration (hours) 24
Individual study time 90
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 3
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student will know the principles of pharmacovigilance, its importance and its modalities. He/She will also know the basics to define the risk/benefit of drugs. Last, through the practicals, he/she will be apt to analyze pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data to extract basic quantitative measures of drugs
Contenuti TOXICOLOGY MODULE 1. General principles of toxicology 2. Disposition of toxicants 3. Non organ-directed toxicity 4. Target organ toxicity 5. Toxic agents PHARMACOLOGY LABORATORY MODULE Pharmacodynamics Determination of ligand affinity and of maximum number of binding sites. Binding Type 1 - (Progressive increase of the radioactive ligand). The Scatchard plot. Binding Type 2 -(Fixed concentration of radioactive ligand and increasing concentrations of non-radioactive ligand). IC50 calculation. Pharmacokinetics Single intravenous or oral administration: determining of terminal plasma half-life, plasma clearance, renal clearance and volume of distribution. Continuous infusion: calculation of plasma concentration at steady state Repeated administrations: determining maximum and minimum steady-state plasma levels.
Testi di riferimento Cassarett and Doull: Elementi di tossicologia, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana Piera Ghi: Tossicologia, Edizioni Minerva Medica. Handouts provided at class.
Obiettivi formativi Knowledge of toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic mechanisms that regulate the toxic effects produced by synthetic and natural xenobiotics, especially with regard to drugs, and knowledge of methodologies used for evaluation of the toxicological risk derived from exposure to toxic agents. At the end of the course: KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING ABILITY the student knows concepts related to -molecular and toxicokinetic mechanisms underlying the development of xenobiotic toxic effects; -the general principles governing the estimation of the risk resulting from exposure to chemical agents. In addition, the student has knowledge of preclinical experimentation required to characterize the toxicological profile of a xenobiotic, in particular to novel drug marketing. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING the student is able to: -understand and evaluate the risk/benefit of drugs; -use the toxicological knowledge in the process of research and drug development; -understand and solve questions on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics by experimental data processing. LEARNING SKILLS, JUDGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS the student is able to critically discuss on the course topics, avoiding a mnemonic knowledge.
Prerequisiti There are no formal requirements although to gain the most from the course a knowledge of pharmacology is required.
Metodi didattici Traditional teaching method through frontal lectures and classroom excercises. The educational material consists of the recommended text books and of material (handouts and slides) made available to students in the dedicated website (https://dir.uniupo.it). The frontal lectures provide close interaction between the teacher and students; during the lesson the teacher asks questions to students to stimulate critical thinking and ability to connect the diverse topics.
Altre informazioni n.a.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento TOXICOLOGY MODULE The exam consists of an oral test on the course contents. PHARMACOLOGY LABORATORY MODULE The exam consists of a written test comprising one question on pharmacodynamics and one on pharmacokinetics. The final mark is the average of written and oral tests, expressed in thirties.
Programma esteso TOXICOLOGY MODULE 1. General principles of toxicology: History and scope of toxicology- Principles of toxicology -Mechanisms of toxicity - Risk assessment - Pharmacovigilance - A-F classification of adverse drug reactions. 2. Disposition of toxicants: Absorption, distribution, and escretion of toxicants - Biotransformation of xenobiotics -Toxicokinetics. 3. Non organ-directed toxicity: Chemical carcinogenesis - Genetic Toxicology -Development toxicology. 4. Target Organ toxicity: Toxic responses of the blood - Toxic responses of the immune system - Toxic responses of the liver - Toxic responses of the kidney - Toxic responses of the respiratory system - Toxic responses of the nervous system - Toxic responses of the cardiovascular system - Toxic responses of the endocrine system - Toxic responses of the reproductive system. 5. Toxic agents: Toxic effects of pesticides - Toxic effects of metals. PHARMACOLOGY LABORATORY MODULE Single intravenous or oral administration: determining of terminal plasma half-life, plasma clearance, renal clearance and volume of distribution. Continuous infusion: calculation of plasma concentration at steady state Repeated administrations: determining maximum and minimum steady-state plasma levels.
Course borrowed from CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (1505) - FA0039 Tossicologia e laboratorio di farmacologia - NOVARA
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Course Biochimica applicata
Course ID FA0099
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ROSSI Franca
Teachers Rossi Franca
CFU 8
Teaching duration (hours) 64
Individual study time 136
SSD BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 2
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Upon successful completion of the Course, the Students will have acquired knowledge and understanding of the taught subjects, and gained skills to autonomously deal with and solve new and/or complex problems on the studied topics. In details, They will know and understand a) the methods, the techniques and the experimental protocols for the production and purification of proteins and nucleic acids to be used in bio-technology and diagnostic field and b) the methods, techniques and experimental protocols for the manipulation and the biochemical/functional characterization of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes. The Students will be able to apply this knowledge a) to set up an experimental protocol for the expression and / or purification of proteins; b) to adapt an already published procedure to specific cases in the field of the biochemical and functional analysis of biological macromolecules; c) to develop new functional assays, by properly choosing the experimental method and the equipment for conducting the experiments; d) to report on experimental / research activities. Finally, the Students are expected to build up the capability to query the correct sources and databases and to extract the significant information, developing the learning skills necessary for Them to undertake further study on the subjects covered by the course, with a high degree of autonomy. The Students will be able to use the appropriate terminology to communicate the results of "problem solving" activities. Overall, these capabilities will serve as the basis for i) a more informed understanding of other disciplines that the Students will encounter in their ensuing studies and ii) for a more autonomous and conscious conduction of the laboratory activities aimed at their experimental thesis data collection and analysis.
Contenuti The introductive part of the Course illustrates the application of biochemical methods to different fields in the bio-medical research area. This section also briefly recaps the chemical, physical and functional properties of nucleic acids and proteins, which can be exploited for the isolation, the production, the analysis and the manipulation of these fundamental macromolecules. The following part of the Course is structured in two main teaching modules. The first section describes the techniques and the systems that can be used (or adapted) for the production of recombinant proteins, including the demonstration of the use of publicly accessible databases for the analysis and comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The second section describes the currently available technology, instrumentation, materials and methods for i) the purification of proteins and macromolecular complexes (which can be obtained from natural sources or expressed in recombinant form), ii) their biochemical characterization, and iii) their modification or functional improvement to serve specific biochemical tasks.
Testi di riferimento - Stoppini, M e Bellotti, V “Biochimica Applicata” Ed. EdiSES ISBN 9788879597135 - Bonaccorsi di Patti, MC, et al. “Metodologie Biochimiche” Ed. CEA ISBN 978-8808-18329-3 - Selected Scientific full-papers and Reviews The slideshows used to support the "ex-cathedra" lectures -and exclusively in the absence of copyright issues-, will be made available to the Students at the end of the Course, as "read-only" files; they are intended for triggering the Student's further study on the taught subjects.
Obiettivi formativi The Course "Applied Biochemistry" describes the theoretical and practical aspects and the impact of the study of biological macromolecules in different fields, from medical and life sciences to bio-analytical disciplines. The course aims to equip the Student with a solid background for her/his future study and research activities, focused on the description of the structure and function of proteins and the application of the obtained information. To this end, classical and advanced methods for the production, purification, manipulation and biochemical characterization of macromolecules will be illustrated. Moreover, by assigning individual virtual research projects, the Course aims at stimulating the Student's attitude to an independent and critical thinking, and to rationally face a biochemistry problem.
Prerequisiti An adequate knowledge of general biochemistry is required.
Metodi didattici lessons "ex cathedra"; seminars; "problem solving" excercises (both in small groups and individual activities, in class).
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written exam. The first exercise will focus on the steps required to design and construct a vector for the expression of a recombinant protein, and on the biochemical / biomolecular analysis of the encoded protein. The second exercise will consist in defining a protocol for the purification of a protein from a complex mixture or a strategy for the biochemical and/or functional characterization of a recombinant protein. The short assay (A4 page) may relate to a technical topic (e.g. "Principles and applications of affinity chromatography") or to a broader subject (e.g. "Analysis of macro-molecular interactions by using biophysical methods).
Programma esteso The recombinant DNA technology applied to the expression of proteins. The Polymerase Chain Reaction: principles, equipment and design of primers. Electrophoresis on agarose gel for DNA analysis: principles and instruments. Sub-cloning vectors: general characteristics. Plasmid vectors for the expression of recombinant proteins in bacteria. Other vectors for the generation of recombinant DNA molecules. Transformation of competent bacteria and electroporation. Genomic DNA purification. The production of cDNA libraries. Restriction endonuclease and ligases: general characteristics, physiological role and use in the recombinant DNA technology. Purification of DNA fragments from agarose matrices. Purification of plasmid DNA from bacterial cultures. Modification enzymes: polymerase and exonuclease; alkaline phosphatases (SAP, CIP). PCR-based site-specific mutagenesis: principles and examples. DNA sequencing: the "Sanger's method" (dideoxyribonucleotides) and its automation. Analysis of nucleic acids by hybridization techniques: principles and applications (Southern blot and colony hybridization in detail). DNA probes labelling techniques. The expression of recombinant proteins in heterologous systems: in vitro coupled transcription-translation. Systems for the inducible expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli. The Baculovirus / Insect Cell system (the Bac-to-Bac system in detail). The Tet-ON and Tet-OFF systems for the expression of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. The yeast Pichia pastoris as a recombinant protein expression system (PAOX-based system in detail). Working with proteins: the golden rules. Cellular disruption (lysis) by osmotic shock, mechanical stress and use of detergents: principles, limits and applicability of the methods. Cellular lysis by ultra-sonication: principles and applications. Centrifugation of biological samples: principles and instrumentation. Cell fractionation by differential centrifugation and analytical centrifugation. Quantification of proteins in a sample. Protein electrophoresis: principles and instrumentation. The electrophoretic separation of proteins and analysis by SDS-PAGE. Protein analysis by isoelectro-focusing (IEF): principles, applications and equipment (carrier ampholytes and immobilines). 2D Electrophoresis. Native gel electrophoresis. "Total" or "group-specific" staining methods of proteins separated by electrophoresis. Protein detection by immunoblot: western blot and dot-blot. Immunological tests: general principles. ELISA, RIA and competitive assays. The lateral flow immuno-chromatography applied to disposable devices. Introduction to Liquid Chromatography techniques (LC) used in purification of macromolecules. Affinity chromatography: matrices functionalized with group-specific and mono-specific ligands. Chromatographic approaches for the isolation of recombinant "tagged" proteins. Ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and its application to the analysis of protein-protein interactions and oligomeric state. Methods for concentration of proteins in a sample: absorbing resins; dialysis vs. PEG; ultrafiltration. Analysis of amino acid composition and primary protein structure. Determination of the N- and C-terminal residues. Edman's Degradation. Considerations on the strategies to be adopted for the setting up of enzyme assays and for enzyme kinetics.Biochemical study of macromolecular interactions. The "classic" two-hybrid yeast system (2HYS) for confirming protein interactions and as an interaction cloning approach. Other "N-hybrid" artificial systems for the study of macromolecular interactions, at specific localization within the cell. The phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) applied to the quantitative, in real-time study of interactions between macromolecular partners and of protein / small molecule association: principles and instrumentation. Procedures / methods for functionalizing the biosensor chip. Study of protein-protein and protein-DNA interaction by ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry). The in vitro and in vivo analysis of macromolecular complexes dynamics based on the FRET phenomenon: principles and applications.
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Course PATOLOGIA (TERMINOLOGIA MEDICA)
Course ID F0417
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader SICA Antonio
Teachers Sica Antonio, Porta Chiara
CFU 8
Teaching duration (hours) 64
Individual study time 136
SSD MED/04 - PATOLOGIA GENERALE
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 2
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Learning and understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diseases and the medical terminology used to describe them. Ability to disseminate the acquired knowledge by using the specific terminology. Application of the acquired knowledge in order to 1) understand the therapeutic effects of the pharmacological approaches addressed by the subsequent study courses, 2) read the literature in an independent and critical way 3) identify new potential therapeutic targets
Contenuti Basic knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms; cellular pathology, basic knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune system, basic knowledge of oncology.
Testi di riferimento Le basi patologiche delle malattie, Robbins, Cotran, Piccin editore Patologia Generale; Pontieri-Russo-Frati, Piccin editore Fondamenti di Immunologia ABBAS ABUL K.-LICHTMAN ANDREW H. Piccin editore
Obiettivi formativi Acquire and understand the etiological bases and pathological mechanisms that drive the development of diseases through the study of cell adaptation mechanisms, damage and death, immune responses (innate and acquired) and immunopathology. Develop critical judgment on the subject, logically linking concepts and knowledge to each other. Combine the ability to learn with the ability to discuss the topics in a clear and fluent manner, using the appropriate terminology
Prerequisiti It is advisable to have already followed the course of Biology and the course of physiology
Metodi didattici Traditional: lectures and seminars
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The written exam consists of a multiple choice test. The test consists of about 40 questions related to the topics reported in the program followed by 3-4 response options. The student has 1 hour to complete the written exam. Those who correctly answer at least 70% of the questions (no negative scores are attributed to wrong answers) can access the oral test that takes place on the same day and consists of open questions aimed at assessing the understanding of the subject combined with critical and popular skills. Two exam sessions are set during the months of February, June-July and September
Programma esteso 1: Adaptive cell response. Cellular damage and death. Cell and tissue responses to stress conditions. Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis Degenerative processes by macromolecules accumulation 2: Inflammation and innate immunity Biological and physical barriers of innate immunity Innate immune cells: origin and functions Endothelium and leukocyte recruitment Pathogen recognition: structure and signaling of TLR receptors family Mechanisms of pathogens killing: phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species. Soluble mediators of innate immunity: vasoactive ammines and inflammatory cytokines Transcriptional programs of innate immunity and inflammation. The complement system Chronic and polarized inflammation. Granuloma. Tissue repair: Granulation tissues Fibrosis and sclerosis Dendritic cells: link between innate and adaptive immunity. 3: Specific immunity Specific Immunity: Specificity, memory and tolearnce Lymphocyte functions Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues B lymphocytes: differentiation, activation and maturation Antibodies: structure, classes, functions. Immunoglobulin genes: mechanisms of rearrangement, variability, Primary and secondary response T lymphocytes: differentiation, activation and maturation The TCR: structure, signaling transduction, mechanisms of rearrangement and variability The major complex of hystocompatibility: class I and class II (structures and functions) HLA genes: poligenia and polimorphism; MHC restriction and graft rejection Cytiotoxic T lymphocytes Helper T lymphocytes Thymic selection Peripheral and central tolerance 4: Principles of Oncology Definition and classification Biology of tumor growth Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis Neoplastic transformation: chemical and phisical transformation Oncogenic viruses Cancerogenesis as a multistep process Oncogenes: definition and classification; Role in neoplastic transformation Onco-suppressor genes: Role in neoplastic transformation and in tumor growth Apoptotic genes and DNA repair genes: Genetic instability. Gene Methylation Tumor immunology Dendritic cell-based vaccines
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Course Chimica organica II e Chimica degli eterocicli
Course ID FA0093
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader PANZA Luigi
Teachers Panza Luigi, Appendino Giovanni Battista
CFU 9
Teaching duration (hours) 72
Individual study time 153
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 2
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student has to demonstrate an adequate knowledge and understanding of the topics developed during the course, with particular focus on the proper understanding of the logic of organic chemistry. It is expected the student to be able to apply knowledge and understanding in dealing with even complex problems with sufficient personal good sense.
Contenuti Alcohols and ethers Aldehydes e ketones Aromatic hydrocarbons Carboxylic acids Aliphatic and aromatic amines Aromatic aldehyides Phenols Outline on main sulfur containing compounds Structure, nomenclature and properties of the main penta- and hexacyclic etherocyclic systems Functionalization of electron-rich and electron-poor heterocyclic systems Synthetic entries into the main heterocyclic systems and their products of benzo-condensation
Testi di riferimento N. E. Shore, P. Vollhardt, Chimica organica, Zanichelli W.H. Brown, C.S. Foote, Chimica organica, Edises J. McMurry, Chimica organica, Piccin Broggini-Zecchi. La Chimica degli Eterocicli. La Scientifica, 2009 (paperback/e-Book) D’Auria et al.. Guida Ragionata allo Svolgimento degli Esercizi di Chimica Organica. Loghia Additional textbook R. Norman, J.M. Coxon, Principi di sintesi organica, Ed. Piccin
Obiettivi formativi Knowledge of the reactivity of the main functional groups of organic molecules, with emphasis on reaction mechanisms, also with links to biological examples to exemplify the prerequisites to other disciplines. Introduction of the basic concepts of organic synthesis, to prepare the student to the construction of even polyfunctional molecules.Applications of these concepts to the chemistry of heterocycles. Development of a critical ability in facing complex problems.
Prerequisiti Knowledge of the structure and properties of the main functional groups of organic compounds. Ability to manage the resonance formulas and concepts of acidity and basicity in organic chemistry.
Metodi didattici Lectures with multimedia support and exercises. In particular, the use of concepts in facing specific problems will be shown in order to provide a problem-solving ability.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written test for admission to the oral examination, usually consisting of a set of questions and problems (usually 5 for the part of Organic Chemistry and for the part of Heterocyces) related to the contents of the course (reaction mechanisms, guided and open-ended questions of synthesis of multifunctional organic compounds, heterocyclic chemistry). For each question the available points are stated with a sum of 30. The written test is passed with a score of 18 points. Oral examination with discussion of synthetic and mechanistic aspects related to the synthesis of polyfunctional molecules and heterocycles, with articular attention o evaluate the ability to establish logical connections between different topics.
Programma esteso Alcohols: nomenclature and properties. Preparation and reactivity. Cromium oxidations (Jones, CrO3-pyridine, PDC, PCC) Swern oxidation. Diols. Degradation with periodate and permanganate. Pinacolinic trasposition, mechanism and stereochemistry.Substitutions of the hydroxyl group with halogens. Sulfonates. Lithium, magnesium and copper (mention) organometallic reagents: comparison of reactivity. Ethers: nomenclature and properties. Preparation and reactivity. Aldehydes and ketons: nomenclature and properties. Preparation and carbonyl reactivity. Keto-enol tautomerism. Acyl nucleophilic addition reactions: addition of organometallic compounds, hydrides, HCN, alcohols ammonia derivatives. Bayer-Villiger reaction. Mention to the concept of protecting groups. Acetals as protecting groups. Wittig reaction. Enolate ions. Mechanism of base and acid catalyzed ketones halogenation. Aldol condensation with mention to stereochemical aspects. Aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromaticity. Huckel rule. Omoaromatic and structures of main heterocyclic compounds. Aromatic ions. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: nitration, sulfonation, Halogenation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, chloromethylation reaction. Mechanism and substituent effect on reactivity and orientation. Electrophilic substitution on polycyclic aromatic compounds. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mechanisms of addition-elimination and elimination-addition. Carboxylic acids: acyl halides, esters and amides. Nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions. Mechanisms of basic and acid hydrolysis of esters. Hofmann transposition of amides. Hell-Vohlard-Zelinsky. Dicarboxylic acids; alkylation of malonates and acetacetates. Ketoacids and ketoesters; Claisen and Dieckmann condensation acid and basic cleavage and keto-enol tautomerism.. Claisen reaction. Perkin condensation. Oxyacids. Reformatsky reaction. Mannich condensation. -Unsaturated carbonyl compounds: Preparation and reactivity. Michael reaction and Robinson annulation. Mention to aliphatic nitroderivatives. Aliphatic and aromatic amines: basicity and preparations. Reactivity: quaternari ammonium salts and Hofmann degradation, amides and sulfonamides, Hinsberg test, reaction with nitrous acid. Diazonium salts: formation and reactivity. Azo-, azoxi e idrazoderivatives. Aromatic aldehyides: formylation reactions (Gattermann, Gattermann-Koch, Vielsmeier). Phenols: acidity and preparations. Reactivity. Fries transposition. Kolbe and Reimer-Tiemann reaction. Quinones. Mention on main sulfur containing compounds: Thiols, thiophenols, sulfides, sulfoxides, sulfones, sulfenic, sulfynic and sulfonic acids, sulfonyl chlorides and sulfonamides. Structure and properties of the main heterocycles systems (nomenclature, aromaticity, tautomerism, acid-base properties) General synthetic methods for heterocyclic compounds. Survey of the major electron-rich (pyrrole, furan, thiophene, 1,2-azoles, 1,3-azoles and their products of benzo-condensation) and electron-poor systems (pyridine, pyrilium ion and their benzo-condensed products.
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Course Chimica, tecnologia e contaminanti degli alimenti
Course ID FA0028
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ARLORIO Marco
Teachers Arlorio Marco, Locatelli Monica
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 119
SSD CHIM/10 - CHIMICA DEGLI ALIMENTI
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 2
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento The teaching will be delivered in Italian; part of the material used by the teacher will be in English.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi At the end of the course the student must demonstrate the acquisition of basic knowledge, as well as specific and advanced knowledge relating to the composition of foods, the basic principles of their production, the relative regulatory framework. The student will know the main technologies and unit operations useful for microbial stabilization, conservation, food processing, as well as the production of useful ingredients in both the food and nutraceutical industrial sectors. Furthermore, it will have to demonstrate a deep knowledge about the use of food additives, enzymes and flavorings, as well as to know the main food contaminants. The student will be able to plan the formulation of a food product (ingredient, food or food supplement), as well as manage the labeling of the same. Finally, the student must possess the knowledge necessary to define the nutritional and caloric profile of a food/food supplement, in addition to the other teachings followed in the food area. The student must know how to expose the topics with appropriate technical language, interfacing with other professional figures (principally food and pharmaceutical technologists, but also medical doctors and dieticians).
Contenuti - Chemistry of amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids: deepening on the peculiarities correlated to the food area - Vitamins, minerals and polyphenols - Definitions: food product, ingredient, processed food, regulatory framework - Food products interest in Pharma area - Chemical composition of foods: (principal and minor compounds) - Bioactive compounds in foods and nutraceutics: examples from plant, animal and fungal foods - Food industry and food technology; food processing; unit processes. - Techniques of sanitization and processing; Mild technologies, microorganisms and food biotechnologies - Bio-proteins from microbial source, fungi and algae - Definition of NOAEL and DGA, toxicological studies and Risk Assessment - Improvement agents (food additives, enzymes, flavouring compounds): classification and case studies - Food contaminants: classification and case studies - Residues in foods: plant protection products, pesticides and veterinary drugs - The food significance in modern nutrition - Biological detoxification mechanisms (overview)
Testi di riferimento Slides used in the course, provided by the Teacher Food Chemistry and composition: *INTRODUZIONE ALLA CHIMICA DEGLI ALIMENTI. Martelli, M. Arlorio:. Edizioni CLU, 1996, Torino *CHIMICA DEGLI ALIMENTI, a cura di A. Martelli, P. Cabras. Piccin Editore, 2003 *P. Cappelli, V. Vannucchi: Chimica degli alimenti, Ed. Zanichelli Toxicology and Food Toxicology: *TOSSICOLOGIA, a cura di C.G. Galli, E. Corsini, M. Marinovich. Piccin Editore, 2003 Regulatory framework: Gazzette Ufficiali Italiana ed Europea (e supplementi) For insight into the topic of food chemistry: *Belitz, Grosch, Schieberle “Food Chemistry”, Ed. Springer (IV Edition) For insight into the topic of Toxicology: Food Toxicology. W. Helferich, C. Winter Editor. CRC Press, Boca Raton Florida, 2001 Food Biotechnology: *C.Gigliotti, R.Verga: Biotecnologie Alimentari, Ed. Piccin Padova.
Obiettivi formativi The course aims to provide basic knowledge concerning) i) basic chemical knowledge on molecules and macromolecules in foods, also concerning vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and other minor compounds; ii) the basic knowledge on food technologies for food sanitization, processing, also considering Mild Technologies, biotechnologies and new sustainable approaches; iii) the chemical composition and nutritional value of the food and iv) the knowledge on chemistry and usefulness of the main food additives, processing aids, flavourings and enzymes. Moreover, the course will take into account v) the main contaminants (natural and induced by technology) and residues (veterinary drugs/pesticides) in foods also describing their chemical structures, toxicological aspects and the "food risk" correlated to their presence in diet. Another aim will be to transfer a general basic knowledge on the regulatory framework in food and nutrition area. Particular emphasis will be given to the description of the main bioactive compounds in "functional foods” and ingredients used also for the formulation of dietary supplements and "nutraceuticals", in order to provide the student a broad knowledge in the field. The knowledge gained from the course will be useful to the student in Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology to manage the food production and analysis, as well as to formulate ingredients for functional foods, dietetics for particular use (ADAP) and food supplements. Final aim of this course is to give to the student autonomy in evaluation of the quality of foods through the acquired knowledge. Critically applying this knowledge, the student will be able to manage the production and the analysis of foods, improving the capacity to design new ingredients for functional foods, for food dedicated to special medical uses and for the food supplements.
Prerequisiti We recommend the acquisition of knowledge about the courses of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, fundamental for the understanding of the lessons of this course.
Metodi didattici The teaching method used provides ex-cathedra lectures given by the teacher, complemented by class discussion of cases study. The discussion of selected case studies is finalized to improve the capacity to critically understand the arguments correlated to the course, permitting to the student to acquire in autonomy the knowledge, object of the course. Specific seminars could be organized in cooperation with external Teachers and experts in the field.
Altre informazioni Considering the complexity of the theme as well as the high interest of industry (or regulatory board) towards this field, the teacher will try to discuss deeply the case studies, discussing the most critical sides of the themes in an interactive way with the class. Questions or suggestions by the students will be welcomed, in order to deeply discuss together the case studies. The course takes time to study in addition to the lessons, in order to improve the capacity to manage this field deepening the topics.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The assessment of the learning is based on the elaboration of a written Test that includes: 1. writing of structural formulas of the compounds considered during the course (the list of the structure to be known can be downloaded from the Department's website) 2. open questions, that relate to topics covered and 3. some multiple choice questions. The first part (structural formulas) will permit the evaluation of the degree of knowledge about the “chemistry” of the foods considered in this course, moreover the drafting of the “open questions” will permit the evaluation of the general knowledge about the field. Finally, the reply to the last two questions (multiple choice) will permit the evaluation of the deepening of the study performed by the student. The overcoming of the first part of the written Test (4 out of 6 formulas must to be exact) will be considered to gain access to parts 2 and 3 of the Test and, therefore, to reach the evaluation of the same. The Test schedule is posted on the Department's website. WARNING: only the off-course / repeaters or enrolled in the fifth year will have access to the "special Tests", planned outside the examination period.
Programma esteso Basic knowledge for food chemistry comprehension Amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids: chemical and nutritional properties. Protein and functional properties; examples of proteins and their use in food and nutraceutics production. Maillard Reactions; Mono- oligo- and polysaccharides useful in food area. Vitamins, minerals, polyphenols, Dietetic Fiber. Minor compounds in foods. Food Chemistry and Technology Food Industry, food technology, food processing. Food sanitization and stabilization, transformation of raw foods/materials, impact of technology on food. Advanced and novel techniques for food/nutraceutics production. Food biotechnology. Microorganism and enzymes in food technology. Bioproteins from microbial source, fungi and algae. Definitions (food, ingredients, processed foods), regulatory framework. Foods meaning in Pharma area. Plant and animal proteins. Soy and derived foods. Fruits, vegetables, pulses. Preservation, Ethylene’s role, modified atmospheres. Non alcoholic beverages, fruit juices, nectars, marmalade and jams. Cereals, proteins and celiac disease. Minor cereals and pseudo-cereals. Flours, semolina, bread and pasta. Bakery products. Starch, HGCS, HMCS, HFCS, Honey. Sucrose. Bioactive compounds from foods: case studies. Wine, chemical composition, alcoholic grade. Special wines. Beer, malt production, minor compound of beer. Nervine foods. Food lipids: classification, rectification, hardening. Oxidation and thermo-oxidation. lipids deterioration. Margarine, olive oil and other oils. Milk: composition and classification. HD milk, concentrated and powdered milk. Butter, Yogurt and fermented milks. Cheese, composition and classification. Meat: classification and composition, minor bioactive compounds. Homogenized and lyophilized meats. Fish and Fish products. Eggs and derived products. Water. Novel ingredients e novel foods; Food supplements (definitions). Food Additives, contaminants and residues Quality and safety of foods, toxicity, Risk assessment (NOAEL; DGA). EU’s regulatory framework. Food colours; sweeteners (bulk or intensive): classification, properties, examples. Other Additives (classification and case studies). Flavourings and Enzymes. Classification of undesired contaminants in foods. Adverse reactions. Antinutritive compounds. Natural toxins (from plant, bacteria, fungi, algae and microalgae, fish). Toxic compounds from essential oils. Microbiological diseases. Food allergens. SO2. Pseudo-allergic reactions, biogenic amines in foods. Food parasites (Anisakis). Technological contaminants: examples. Heavy metals. Residues (pesticides, products for plant protection, veterinary drugs). Environmental contaminants; contaminant from packages. Endocrine disruptors. Detoxifications mechanisms. Web resources.
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Course Analisi dei farmaci I
Course ID FA0026
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ALLEGRONE Gianna
Teachers Sorba Giovanni, Tron Gian Cesare, Allegrone Gianna
CFU 6
Teaching duration (hours) 24
Individual study time 90
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 2
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento italian language
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Knowledge and understanding of the analytical methods applicable to qualitative or quantitative analysis. Ability to apply such knowledge and skills in the analysis of drugs present in the Pharmacopoeia
Contenuti Qualitative analysis of inorganic substances. Identification of cations and anions of inorganic pharmaceutical substances reported in Farmacopeia. Quantitative analysis. Volumetric analysis. Titrant standard solutions. Chemical reactions of titrations. Titration curves. Indicators. Acid-base titrations. Precipitometric titrations. Redox titrations. Complexometric titrations. Laboratory exercitations on qualitative and quantitative analysis
Testi di riferimento Harris “Quantitative chemical analysis” ISBN 0-7167-70415 Farmacopea Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, XII edizione. European Pharmacopoeia, VIII edition
Obiettivi formativi The formative path of the first part is learning how to perform qualitative analysis of inorganic drugs following the Italian and European Farmacopeia. The formative path of the second part of this course leads to the ability of understanding and mastering the dosing methods within Italian and European Pharmacopoeias, from the choice of the method to the assessment of operating conditions, from sample preparation and measurement execution to result evaluation.
Prerequisiti The students need basic knowledge from the courses of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry and medicinal analysis
Metodi didattici Lessons and laboratory esercitazions
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written examination and evaluation of lab activities. Ongoing evaluation before entering laboratories
Programma esteso Qualitative analysis of inorganic substances. Identification of cations (ammonium, aluminum, silver, bismuth, calcium, lithium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc) and anions (carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, bromides, iodides, phosphates, thiosulfates, sulfates, borates) of inorganic pharmaceutical substances reported in Farmacopeia. Flame test Quantitative analysis. Volumetric analysis. Titrant standard solutions. Chemical reactions of titrations. Indicators. Acid-base titrations Titration curves. Reagents used in acidimetry (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) and primary standards (Na2CO3 and KHCO3). Reagents used in alkalimetry (KOH, NaOH, Ba (OH)2 and primary standardsd. Drugs quantitative determination by acid-base titration: acetic acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, tartaric acid, ammonia. Exercises on the acid-base titrations Precipitometric titrations. Titration curves. Use of chromatic indicators for the determination of the end point. Mohr, Vohlard, Fajans methods. Drugs quantitative determination by titration precipitometriche: sodium chloride .Exercises on titration precipitometriche. Redox titrations. Titration curves. Redox indicators. Permanganometry: standard KMnO4 solutions, preparation, stability, standardization; Analytical reactions of KMnO4. Iodimetric methods: preparaziome of I2 and standardization solution. Iodometric methods: use of a starch solution as an indicator. Drugs quantitative determination by redox titration: H2O2, Sodium hypochlorite Exercises on redox titrations. Complexometric titrations Titration curves. Titration techniques: direct, return and displacement. Metallochromic indicators. Determination of Ca ++ and Mg ++ in waters. Exercises on complexometric titrations. Laboratory exercitations on qualitative and quantitative analysis
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Course Biochimica
Course ID FA0025
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader RIZZI Menico
Teachers Rizzi Menico
CFU 8
Teaching duration (hours) 64
Individual study time 136
SSD BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 2
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian with slides in English
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Upon successful completion of the Course, the Students should have acquired both a detailed knowledge of the specific topics taught and a broad view of the metabolism as an highly interconnected and regulated network. The Student’s capacity to independently understand this last concepts in particular and being able to understand possible reactions in response to a stimuli is expected. More in particular each Student will understand: 1) the chemical structure of the main biological macro-molecules; 3) the molecular basis and the effects of the structure-function relationship in biological macro-molecules; 3) the specific enzymatic steps in metabolic pathways; 4) the regulation and its hierarchy in metabolism; 5) how to calculate the energetic balance in metabolism; 6) the interconnection, in particular with respect to regulation, of different metabolic pathways. Finally the Student will develop appropriate terminology. Overall, these capabilities will built the basis for understanding, and better communicate in a highly multidisciplinary context, the complex process of drug discovery and drug action.
Contenuti - Proteins - Lipids - Carbohydrates - Enzymes - Basic thermodynamic concepts in metabolism - Carbohydrates metabolism - Biological oxidation - Lipids metabolism - Amino-acids metabolism - Nucleotides metabolism - Protein synthesis - Protein targeting - Protein degradation
Testi di riferimento - Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet Charlotte W. Pratt FONDAMENTI DI BIOCHIMICA Terza edizione Italiana 2013, Zanichelli Editore ISBN 9788808175441 - David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox I PRINCIPI DI BIOCHIMICA DI LEHNINGER 2006, Zanichelli Editore ISBN 978-8808-19774-0 - Thomas M: Devlin BIOCHIMICA con aspetti clinico-farmaceutici 2013, EdiSES srl ISBN: 978 8879 597 807
Obiettivi formativi The Course aims at providing the necessary knowledge to understand: (1) the structure, the function and the structure-function relationship of biological macro-molecules and (2) the metabolic pathways. The core of the course consists of the in depth description and analysis, in different contexts, of the major metabolic pathways to develop the capacity to see the metabolism as a highly integrated network with a particular attention to the regulatory and energetic aspects. Moreover, the detailed description of the mechanism sustaining protein functions, provides an atomic view of a specific biochemical event as a requisite to understand the molecular/atomic bases of diseases for their pharmacological treatment. Overall, the course aims to develop in the student both a specific knowledge of the chemistry behind biochemical events, essential in the process of drug design, and the capacity to frame the effect of a pharmacological intervention on a specific target, at the level of the whole cell/organ/organism. This to allow understanding the complex process of drug discovery, with critical thinking. Attention is also dedicated to nomenclature and “biochemistry language”, to develop the essential communication skills required to efficiently operates in the highly multidisciplinary field of drug development
Prerequisiti The knowledge of the basic principles of general biology, phisycal-chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry is essential. It is therefore highly recommended that the student has passed the exams of General Biology and Inorganic Chemistry and have attended the Course of Organic Chemistry , before taking the course of Biochemistry.
Metodi didattici Ex-cathedra lectures. During the Course, after a specific topic has been covered in the lectures, a discussion with the students is conducted to allow both the teacher and the students to assess the extend to which the different concepts (and not specific information) have been understood and received always trying to stimulate and develop a critical thinking attitude.
Altre informazioni NA
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written and oral exams. The written exam is based on four open questions spanning the whole program with two questions specifically addressing the central metabolism. Metabolites chemical formula, enzymatic reactions and regulation of metabolic pathways are invariably requested. Only the students that pass the written exam (i.e. that received a mark equal or higher than 18/30) can proceed to the oral part during which, starting from the questions asked in the written exam, the capacity of the student to link different topics with critical thinking in both pathological and/or physiological states, will be assessed together with the communication skills.
Programma esteso - Proteins: amino-acids: structure, properties, function. The peptide bonds. Structural organization of proteins: amino-acid sequence, secondary structures; overall structure: fold type; quaternary structure. The process of protein folding. Chaperonines. Oxygen transport. Myoglobin and Hemoglobin: structure and function; allostery and allosteric factors; hemoglobin variants; the theory of co-operativity: sequential model and concerted model - Lipids: structure, properties and functions - Carbohydrates: structure, properties and functions; glycoproteins - Enzymes: classification; coenzymes; Theory of catalysis; Enzyme kinetics; mechanisms of irreversible and reversible enzyme inhibition; regulation of enzyme activity; examples of enzyme catalysis (serine proteinases). -Basic thermodynamic concept in metabolism: phospho-compounds; ATP and the reaction of phosphorylation. Redox equilibrium in the biological systems: NAD(P) and FAD - Carbohydrates metabolism: Glycolysis. Fermentation. Glycogen degradation. Gluconeogenesis. Pyruvate oxidation and the citric cycle. - Biological oxidation: the respiratory chain: electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. FoF1 ATP synthase. - Lipids metabolism: lipids transport and activation; fatty acids transport into mitochondria; the process of beta-oxidation: odd chain, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Ketone bodies. Fatty acids biosynthesis. Colesterol synthesis. - Amino-acids metabolism. Oxidation of amino-acids and the urea cycle. - Nucleotides metabolism. Purine and pyrimidine synthesis. Synthesis of deoxy-ribonucleotides. Nucleotides degradation.
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Course FARMACOGNOSIA E FITOTERAPIA
Course ID F0428
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader LOMBARDI Grazia
Teachers Lombardi Grazia
CFU 6
Teaching duration (hours) 48
Individual study time 102
SSD BIO/14 - FARMACOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 2
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi In order to acquire the minimum level of learning, the student must have enough: 1) knowledge of the pharmacological bases of therapy and the main mechanisms of action underlying drug activity; 2) competence to apply the acquired theoretical knowledge and identify the data and tools necessary for the realization of a project; 3) skills in presentation of results, reading of texts, understanding of specific terminologies. To acquire the advanced level, the student must be able to: 1) propose new innovative projects and methodologies; 2) interfacing with colleagues of the same or other disciplines; 3) modify the plan of project to achieve the proposals
Contenuti The Course is composed of one section (5 CFU) of Pharmacognosy and one (1 CFU) of Phytotherapy. It aims to give to the student the scientific basis for a full knowledge and understanding of the main natural drugs, as well as the principal phytotherapic compounds. During the Course, the student will acquire skills on how to apply these scientific knowledge and develop independent judgment, communication skills, and ability to learn. The Course is organized as follows: i) a first small-section of general Pharmacognosy, concerning the study of bioactive compounds derived from natural products found in plants and animals, the main methods for their preparation, preservation, recognition, quality assessment, purity and activity; ii) a second small-section of systematic Pharmacognosy, concerning the study of some natural drugs. The section of Phytotherapy focuses on the general aspects of this discipline, as well as on the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants.
Testi di riferimento H.P. Rang, M.M. Dale, J.M. Ritter, Farmacologia, Ed. Casa Editrice Elsevier B.G. Katzung, Farmacologia Generale e Clinica, Ed. Piccin R.D. Howland, M. J. Mycek LE BASI DELLA FARMACOLOGIA, Ed. Zanichelli Trease, W.C. Evans, Farmacognosia, Ed. Piccin Dewick P.M., Chimica, Biosintesi e bioattività delle sostanze naturali, Ed. Piccin E. Ragazzi, Farmacognosia minerale, Ed. CEDAM Fabio Firenzuoli, Fitoterapia, Ed. Masson
Obiettivi formativi The Course aims to give to the students the principles of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. To achieve this goal a section (5 CFU) of Pharmacognosy, dealing with the basis of natural drug action as well as the specific properties of several natural compounds, and a section (1 CFU) of Phytotherapy, dealing with the general as well as the specific characteristics of some medicinal plants, will be considered.
Prerequisiti We strongly suggest to pass the Biology, Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pathology exams before studying this Course
Metodi didattici Lectures will be given throughout the October-January and March-June. The students will be constantly stimulated to participate to the lesson with questions and comments in order to ensure the achievement of the goals. Seminars on specific scientific topics will be always organized.
Altre informazioni The Professor will receive the students for specific questions every day by appointment.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written exams with at least 10 open questions with multiple choices will be proposed. There will be the possibility of supplementary oral examinations. The questions will be organized to allow students the achievement of goals. Each question counts 3 scores.
Programma esteso PHARMACOGNOSY (5 CFU) • General principles: drugs in Pharmacognosy. Biogenesis of the main pharmacologically active compounds: synthetic pathways. • Genetic and environmental factors affecting the contents of biologically active compounds. • Cell cultures as methods for studying the main biosynthetic pathways and the sources of biologically active compounds. • Preparation, preservation, recognition, quality determination, purity, and activity of drugs. • Vegetable drugs used in the pathology of: f. The central and peripheral nervous systems: psycostimulants and tonics (cocaine, methylxanthine), hypnotics and sedatives (chrysin, valerianic acid), antidepressives (hyperic), analgesics (morphine) g. The cardiovascular system: cardiotonic (digoxin), vasoconstrictor (ergot alkaloids), antihypertensive (reserpine) agents. h. The respiratory system: cough suppression (codeine), antiasthma (ephedrine) agents. i. The gastrointestinal system: stomatics (azulenes), eupeptics (capsaicin), antispastics (atropine). j. The urogenital system: anti-androgens (Serenoa Repens), antiseptics (arbutin). • Drugs from plants, animals, and minerals: hormones, vitamins, antibiotics, halogens, metals, alkaline metals, metalloids, non-metals PHYTOTHERAPY (1 CFU) • The herbal medicines in human therapy: a. Phytotherapy, general principles, historical outlines b. The chemical compounds of herbal medicines: heterosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, essential oils, tannins, carbohydrates c. The variability of biological active compounds d. The vegetable compounds in therapy and the phytotherapics e. Principles of Galenic • Adverse drug reactions against phytotherapics: f. The essential oils , the embryotoxicity g. The acute toxicity h. The allergic reactions and the photosensitisation i. Drug interactions j. Pharmacovigilance • Clinical Phytotherapy: pediatric, geriatric, and pregnancy uses of phytotherapics • Examples of phytoterapics used in the most common pathologies of the following systems: a. nervous b. respiratory c. cardiovascular d. gastro-enteric e. metabolic f. urogenital g. reumatic h. cutaneous
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Course STATISTICA CON R
Course ID F0592
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2016/2017
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader RINALDI Maurizio
Teachers Rinaldi Maurizio
CFU 2
Individual study time 26
SSD MAT/04 - MATEMATICHE COMPLEMENTARI
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OPZ
Course category D
Year 2
Period Secondo Semestre
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student is expected -to be able to explain the knowledge acquired also in multidisciplinary field and therefore know how to analyze data and create professional graphic representations. - to be able to apply the methods learned even in different situations and if required have the tools to extend his knowledge in an autonomous way. - to acquire the ability to express the results of a data analysis both at a numerical and graphic level. - to acquire the ability to study and learn by choosing his path with originality and must be able to choose resources, possibly even online, useful for his study.
Contenuti The R software and its use to represent data and for statistical data analysis.
Testi di riferimento Reference material is posted on the DIR website
Obiettivi formativi *Knowledge and understanding The course aims to enrich the theoretical knowledge of statistics and probability with appropriate calculation data analysis. Aims of the course is also to display the results. The course in based on the free and open source software R. *Applying knowledge and understanding Students should be able to use the acquired skills even in multidisciplinary context and they should be able to analyse data and generate professional graphical representations. *Making judgements. At the end of the course students are expected to apply R even in different situations and that they have acquired the tools needed to extend their knowledge by themselves. * Communication skills At the end of the course students are expected to be able to express their results both numerically and graphically. * Learning skills. During the course students should learn how to study by choosing their personal path and should become able to choose the appropriate resources.
Prerequisiti The student should have the basic knowledge of mathematics and statistics
Metodi didattici Practical lectures are given in the computer lab.
Altre informazioni Reference material and additional informations are posted on the DIR website https://www.dir.uniupo.it/enrol/index.php?id=219
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Ongoing Quizzes and online Final Examination. Both count toward the final grade in a ratio 3/7.
Programma esteso R software. Elementary operations. Functions and graphs. Import, export in R. Data Structures, packages. Matrices, lists, arrays. The data frame. Working with sata: selecting elements, logical operators. Loops and conditionals. Missing data. Additional graphics packages: ggplot2. Regression line and regression curves. Anova. Pharmacokinetic models. Clustering. Simulations.
Course borrowed from FARMACIA (1506) - FA0078 Statistica con R - NOVARA
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Course Chimica analitica e metodologie in analisi dei medicinali
Course ID FA0021
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader MASSAROTTI Alberto
Teachers Massarotti Alberto
CFU 5
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 85
SSD CHIM/08 - CHIMICA FARMACEUTICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category B
Year 1
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi At the end of the course, the student will acquire theoretical knowledge and understanding about the analytical chemistry. Knowledge will also be acquired about the analytical procedures and carrying out simple numerical exercises in situations involving well known drug.
Contenuti Safety in the chemical laboratory; Standard laboratory instrumentation; Nature and Purpose of Analytical Chemistry; Data evaluation; Acidic and basic properties; The solubility; Lipophilicity; Classroom exercises.
Testi di riferimento D.C. Harris Elementi di Chimica Analitica, Zanichelli Skoog & West Chimica Analitica, Edises Cavrini, Andrisano Principi di Analisi Farmaceutica, Società editrice Esculapio
Obiettivi formativi The course objectives are to provide students with: the basic knowledge about safety in chemical laboratories; the most common equipment in use in laboratories; the notions concerning the obtaining and the critical manipulation of analytical data. The knowledge of the basic techniques used in chemical analytic laboratories. The classroom exercises, allow the student to gain familiarity with the calculations necessary for the preparation of solutions and the determination of physicochemical constants of drugs known.
Prerequisiti Basic knowledge of general and inorganic chemistry. Mathematical and statistical concepts.
Metodi didattici The course consists of lectures with slides show. Some topics will be deepened with videos in English and Italian. Tutorials will be held in class.
Altre informazioni -
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The assessment and the achievement of targets is through the final exam , written with oral discussion of the results , which ensures the acquisition of knowledge and understanding expectations . The written test consists of carrying out simple numerical exercises in situations involving well known drug. The examination is intended to assess on the achievement of the following learning objectives : knowledge of processing procedures and evaluation of experimental data ; knowledge of the main chemical equilibria in solution and the ability to solve problems in which they are involved ; knowledge of the basic principles underlying the main analytical techniques.
Programma esteso Devices for prevention of risk individual and collective protection; Personal protective equipment (PPE); Risks arising from handling chemicals; Rules of conduct. Balances; containers; measurement and transfer of volumes; centrifuges; heating and mixing systems; Rotary evaporator; dryers and desiccant. Nature and purpose of analytical chemistry, function and its applications. Analytical procedures and related issues. Techniques and methods of analysis. Sampling and sample processing. Calibration and standards. The quality assurance in analytical laboratories. Errors in analytical measurements; Accuracy and precision; significant figures; tests of significance; calibration and linear regression. Quality control and chemometrics. Activity and activity coefficient, ionic strength; acid and base strength; Calculation of pH of aqueous solution of dilute acids and bases; Calculation of the salts solution pH, hydrolysis of salts; Ionization of weak acids and bases, equation of Henderson-Hasselbach. Buffer solutions; relations between the structure and character of acid-base; Determination of the pKa and P (log P). The dissolution process; solvents; relations between solubility and structure; solubility essays; solubility of poorly soluble products; solubility product. EXERCISES IN CLASSROOM Methods for the determination of pH, weight and temperature. Techniques for the preparation of standard solutions. Techniques for the preparation of a buffer solution. Purification techniques: crystallization and filtration
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Course LINGUA INGLESE
Course ID F0507
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader Brady Bernadette Catherine
Teachers Brady Bernadette Catherine
CFU 3
Teaching duration (hours) 24
Individual study time 51
SSD L-LIN/12 - LINGUA E TRADUZIONE - LINGUA INGLESE
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category E
Year 1
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
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Course -ANATOMIA UMANA
Course ID F0341
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader BOSETTI Michela
Teachers Bosetti Michela
CFU 6
Teaching duration (hours) 48
Individual study time 102
SSD BIO/16 - ANATOMIA UMANA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Ability to apply their knowledge to describe with autonomy and comunication skills organs and apparatus from a macroscopic and topographic point of view. Ability to apply the microscopic knowledge to understand and describe functional anatomy.
Contenuti General Embryology, the early stages of development. Microscopic anatomy of the bones, muscles and joints. Functional anatomy of the circulatory system: the movement in 'adult and fetus, external and internal configuration of the heart, the main vessels of the trunk, and limbs cephalic end, the concept of circulatory and lymphatic lymphoid organs, with particular reference to lymph nodes and spleen. Gross anatomy and microscopic functional central nervous system (spinal cord, brain stem, diencephalon, telencephalon and cerebellum) and peripheral (general of the large nerve plexus and the cranial nerves), the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid, the main streets of motility and sensitivity; generality of the sympathetic nervous system. Functional anatomy and microanatomy of the visceral apparates (digestive system, respiratory system, urogenital system) with particular reference to the functional units of liver, kidney, lung. Functional anatomy and microanatomy of the endocrine system with particular reference to hypothalamus and pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, gonads, pancreas. The skin.
Testi di riferimento - Anatomia Umana di McKinley PICCIN ed. - Anatomia di Seeley SORBONA ed. - Anatomia Umana di Pasqualino-Panattoni UTET - Principi di Anatomia Umana di Tortora e Nielsen Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - Anatomia Umana di Saladin PICCIN ed. - Anatomia Umana di Castano et al. Edi-ermes
Obiettivi formativi Knowledge of the morphology of the human body. Macroscopic, topographic, microscopic and functional human anatomy.
Prerequisiti NO
Metodi didattici Lessons in the classroom with the support of images, video and plastic (skeleton and organs)
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Oral examination on three different topics. Evaluation of the acquired knowledges and of the ability to use them with comunicative skills and medical terms to describe the asked anatomical structure. The evaluation of the familiarity with microscopic structures will demonstrate functional knowledge of the anatomical structure examined. Together with the description of an anatomical structure it will be tested the ability of the student to connect various topics as a result of a depth and not only a mnemonic study.
Programma esteso - GENERAL ANATOMY: General and systematic knowledge of the anatomy, topography and terminology of location and movement, full hollow organs, anatomical position. - MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY: epithelial tissues, connective tissues with particular attention to blood. Emo-limphopoietic organs. - OSTEOARTHROMIOLOGY: general anatomy of the bones, muscles and joints. - CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: generality of macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the central nervous system and peripheral sympathetic nervous system, the cavities of the central nervous system, the cerebrospinal fluid, the blood-brain barrier, the meninges. Spinal cord, brainstem, cranial nerves and their nuclei, forebrain, the main motor and sensory pathways. - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: generality of systematic anatomy of the cardiovascular system, the circulation in the adult configuration inside and outside of the heart, major vessels of the trunk, cephalic end and the arts. The fetal circulation. - DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: general systematic anatomy of the digestive system, especially the stomach, liver, intestines. General information on the peritoneum. - Respiratory system: general anatomy of the respiratory system systematically, with particular reference to the upper airways and lungs, the pleura generality. - UROGENITAL SYSTEM: general anatomy of the uro-genital systematic, with particular reference to the kidney, the nephron and urinary tract stones. Bladder, uterus, fallopian tubes, sperm streets. -OTHER DEVICES AND SYSTEMS: overview of systematic anatomy of the endocrine system with particular reference to: Hypothalamus, pituitary ovary, testis, adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, digestive juxtaglomerular apparatus
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Course -BIOLOGIA ANIMALE E VEGETALE
Course ID F0501
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader MORO Laura
Teachers Moro Laura
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 119
SSD BIO/13 - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Knowledge and capacity of comprension, critical analysis and lexicon of molecular and cellular biology At the end of the course the student will acquire the necessary tools to: 1) Understand the principles and methods of molecular and cellular biology 2) Understand the molecular mechanisms of gene expression and function 3) Understand eukaryotic cell organization and function
Contenuti Basic properties and components of living organisms (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids) DNA organization, replication and repair Principles of transcription and translation of the genetic information Cell structure and functions Cell communication Animal and plant cell comparison
Testi di riferimento Biologia molecolare della cellula, Alberts, Zanichelli L’essenziale di Biologia molecolare della cellula, Alberts, Zanichelli Biologia cellulare e molecolare, Karp, Edises Il mondo della cellula, Becker, Edises Biologia Vegetale, Longo, UTET Biologia vegetale, Pupillo, Zanichelli Biologia delle piante, Raven, Zanichelli
Obiettivi formativi The course aims to provide basic knowledge on the structural organization of animal and plant eukaryotic cells, cellular processes and intercellular relationships, mechanisms of expression and transmission of genetic information. The course also aims to provide students with adequate skills for managing and communicating information, needed to undertake subsequent studies.
Prerequisiti none
Metodi didattici Classroom lectures will be held during October to January and March to May
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Computer-Based Multiple Choice Exams. Multiple choice questions, concerning the items listed in the program, include a phrase followed by three to five options. Each correct response results in a positive score and omitted items result in no mark (exams are held in February, June / July and September with at least two calls per session).
Programma esteso • Biological macromolecules: nucleic acids DNA and RNA, amino acids and proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. • DNA: the double helix structure. Levels of organization of DNA inside the cell: nuclear chromatin and chromosome structure. DNA replication. Mechanisms of control of the fidelity of copying the genetic message. Mutations: importance in the pathology and evolution. • Molecular definition of gene. • The transcription and maturation of RNAs. • The lac operon as a paradigmatic example of gene regulation in prokaryotes. • The modulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. • The genetic code and its characteristics. • The protein synthesis. • Plasma membrane: organization of the phospholipid bilayer, proteins and sugars. • The mechanisms of transport of small molecules: permeability of the bilayer, channel proteins and carrier proteins, active and passive transport. • Rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus: membrane and secreted protein synthesis, signal sequences, glycosylation and maturation of proteins in the Golgi. Exocytosis and endocytosis. • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Lysosomes and peroxisomes . • Mitochondria. • General principles of cell communication. Properties of receptors and intracellular generation of messages. The extracellular matrix: glucosamminoglycans, proteoglycans, structural proteins and adhesive proteins. • The cytoskeleton: actin and myosin microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules The phases of the cell cycle and mitosis. The cell cycle control. Comparison of plant and animal organisms. • General features of plant cells: size, shape, organization, wall, plastids, vacuole. • Wall: wall formation, chemical composition of the wall, primary and secondary wall cell wall modifications. Importance of the wall in the control of osmotic pressure (see also the vacuole). • Plastids: plastids in the meristematic cell, differentiation, forms and interconversion between the plastids, hypothesis on the origin of plastids. The plastids in the adult cell: chloroplasts, leucoplasts, chromoplasts. • Vacuole: the vacuole in the meristematic cell, differentiation, the vacuole in the adult cell. Importance of the vacuole in the control of osmotic pressure. Solid and liquid includes of the vacuole. • Growth and development of plant cells. Characteristics of the meristematic cell and of adult cell. • The plant tissues. • Photosynthesis: dark phase and light phase. • Plant hormones: auxin, cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene and abscisic acid. • Responses of plants to external stimuli, light and temperature
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Course Chimica organica I
Course ID FA0023
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader APPENDINO Giovanni Battista
Teachers Appendino Giovanni Battista
CFU 5
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 85
SSD CHIM/06 - CHIMICA ORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Knowledge of the basics oforganic chemistry en route to the courses of the second year
Contenuti Struictural and semantic bases of organic chemistry
Testi di riferimento • Botta, B, editore: Chimica Organica. Edi-Ermes • P. H. Bruice, Chimica organica, Edises • N. E. Shore, P. Vollhardt, Chimica organica, Zanichelli • W.H. Brown, C.S. Foote, Chimica organica, Edises • J. McMurry, Chimica organica, Piccin • D’Auria et al.. Guida Ragionata allo Svolgimento degli Esercizi di Chimica Organica. Loghia
Obiettivi formativi Provide students the basics of a) Structure of organic compounds b) Nomenclature of organic compounds c) Conformational and configurational analysis of organic compounds d) Reactivity of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes and alkynes) and halides
Prerequisiti -
Metodi didattici Traditional (frontal lessons)
Altre informazioni -
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Written test (MCQ)
Programma esteso Structure and properties of organic compounds. Nature of the chemical bond. Ionic anc covalent bond; bond geometries and properties. Modern theories on the nature of chemical bond. Lewis formulas and formal charges. Aromaticity. Problem solving activities. Functional groups, physical properties and nomenclature. Representation of molecules. Functional groups. Effect of functional groups on physical properties. Acidity and basicity. Molecular interactions Nomenclature of organic compounds. Problem solving activities. Isomerism and conformational analysis. Isomerism: definition and classification. Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds. Biological relevance of conformational analysis. Configurational analysis of alkenes. Chirality. Kinetics and thermodynamic of chemical processes. Problem solving activites. Stereochemistry: Chirality and stereogenicity. Configurational descriptors. Configurational analysis of diastereomers and enantiomers. Biological relevance of chirality and stereogenicity. Resolution of mixtures of diastereomers and enantiomers. Problem solving activities. Alkanes: Reactivity. Combustion and heats of formation. Halogenation. Reactivity and selectivity. Dissociation energies. Homolytic and heterolytic cleavages. Hammond postulate. Alkenes: Synthesis, stability and reactivity. Formation and stability of carbocations. Elimination reations (dehydration, dehalogenation). E2, E1 and e1cb mechanisms: kinetics, stereochemistry, stereoselectivity and stereospecificity. Regioselectivity. Hydrogenation, Electrophilic addition to double bonds: halogenation, formation of halohydrines and haloethers, Hydration, Addition of HX. Epoxidation. Ozonolysis. Hydroboration-oxidation. Osmilation and reation with permanganate. Dienes and polyenes. Isoprene rule. Conjugated dienes. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of reactions. Diels-Alder reaction. Polymerization. Alkynes: Synthesis and reactivity. Acidity and organometallic derivatives. Addition reactions (comparison with alkenes) Alkyl halides: Synthesis and reactivity. Aliphatic nucleophilic substitution (SN). Mechanisms (SN1, SN2: kinetics and thermodynamics. Solvents and solvent effects.
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Course MATEMATICA E STATISTICA
Course ID F0338
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader RINALDI Maurizio
Teachers Rinaldi Maurizio
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 48
Individual study time 115
SSD MAT/04 - MATEMATICHE COMPLEMENTARI
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi Knowledge of some basic concepts and methods of mathematics, in particular: real numbers and their representations, main elementary functions, derivative and its geometric interpretation, simple integrals, calculation of areas and basic elements of Statistics. Ability at applying these concepts and methods in the modelisation of simple problems in which there are numerical and graphical presentations and synthesis of simple series of experimental data. Ability at communicating problem solutions in a clear and complete fashion. Ability in choosing the mathematical resources useful to deal with simple problems where it is required to interpret and use modeling of natural phenomena.
Contenuti Functions Derivatives Integrals Descriptive Statistics Probability Statistical hyphotesis testing R
Testi di riferimento Sergio Invernizzi, Maurizio Rinaldi, Andrea Sgarro, Moduli di Matematica e Statistica, Zanichelli Editore, Bologna 2000

Obiettivi formativi *Knowledge and understanding The course is intended to provide students with the knowledge and the ability to manage the mathematical tools required to understand and follow the other courses of the Degree. More specifically the course aims to provide students with basic methods of differential and integral calculus plus the basic notions of probability and statistics needed to understand mathematical models and to undertake statistical analysis of experimental results. *Applying knowledge and understanding Students are expected to be able use the acquired skills even in a multidisciplinary context and they should be able to resort to mathematics and statistics even in situations external to the course. *Making judgements. At the end of the course students are expected to apply learned methods even in different situations and that they have acquired the tools needed to extend their knowledge by themselves. * Communication skills At the end of the course students are expected to be able to express the learned concepts in a clear way. * Learning skills. During the course students should learn how to study by choosing their personal path and should become able to choose the appropriate resources, possibly online.
Prerequisiti The student should have the basic knowledge of the subject that can be acquired in a normal high school. In particular: arithmetic operations, powers, Cartesian plane, the line equations, parabola and circumference, angles, measured in degrees and radians, circular functions, fundamental formulas of plane and solid geometry. In case of failure in the test of basic knowledge the student should follow the course on basic mathematics and pass the final test.
Metodi didattici Lectures are given either in the classroom or in the computer lab.
Altre informazioni Reference material and further details are provided on the DIR website. https://www.dir.uniupo.it/course/view.php?id=218 Enrolment key is provided during the lectures.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Ongoing Quizzes and online Final Examination (possibly splitted in two parts). The ongoing quizzes are assigned periodically at the end of a given subject. The Final focuses on all the course matters. Final evaluation gives a weight of 20% to the ongoing quizzes and 80% to the Final. Ongoing quizzes could be replaced by an oral examination.
Programma esteso Credit 1 [Functions] Mathematical concept of functions. Domain and codomain (target), Image. Exponential and power functions. Function composition. Invertible function and inverse function. Inverse circular functions. Logarithms. Credit 2 [Derivatives] Meaning of Derivative Geometric meaning of the derivative. Graphic computation of the derivative through repeated zooms. Approximation of the derivative at a point via Newton quotient. Three point rule. Derivative for tabulated functions. Derivative function. Differentiation rules Derivative of the sum, of the product, of the composite function, of the reciprocal and of the quotient. Derivative of the inverse function. Application of the derivatives Increasing and decreasing functions, Minima and maxima of functions. Computation of maxima and minima with the help of the derivative, Second derivative and study of concavity-convexity of a graph. Credit 3 [Area and Integrals] Numerical Integration Definite integral for positive functions over finite intervals, Computation. Numerical integration with the rectangle methods and trapezoid method. Stochastic integration with the Montecarlo methods. Exact integration The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Indefinite integral and antiderivatives. Computation of antiderivatives. Area between two curves. Extensions of the Integral Integrals for non positive functions. Inversions of integration endpoints. Credit 4 [Statistical Data] Introduction Experimental data and simulated data. How to simulate a fair dice. Single Variable Statistical Units. Samples, populations, variables. Single variable statistics. Data presentations: sorting, absolute frequencies, relative frequencies. Conti- nuous and discrete variables. Bar charts, histograms and box-plot. Properties of the Summation symbol. Statistical parameter, Measures of centrality (mean, median) and measures of dispersion (extensions, quartiles, sample variance and sample standard deviation). Statistical Indices for repeated data. Credit 5 [Double variables statistics Probability.] Double variables Two variables representations. Scatter plot. Covariance, Linear regression (linear regression over X and over Y). Application of linear regression. Power and exponential laws. Variable transformations to reduce to a linear relationship. Credit 6 [Probabilities] Frequentist definition of probability. Complete systems of events. Union and intersection of events. Bayes rule. Probability computations using Bayes rule. Random variables and probabilities densities for discrete and continuous variables. Expected values and standard deviation of a population. Computation of Expected values and variance. Normal variables. Com- putation of the probability P{a < X < b} for a normal variable. Standard variables. Credit 7 [Statistical Tests] Estimations of statistical parameters Reliability criterions. Confidence level and reliability. Point estimates and interval estimates. Interval estimate of the mean of a normal population. Statistical tests Student’s t-test with with one sample and two samples (paired data, equal variance data). Welch test. chi square-test.
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Course FISICA
Course ID F0339
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader ARCIDIACONO Roberta
Teachers Arcidiacono Roberta
CFU 5
Teaching duration (hours) 24
Individual study time 77
SSD FIS/07 - FISICA APPLICATA (A BENI CULTURALI, AMBIENTALI, BIOLOGIA E MEDICINA)
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi The student has to demonstrate a solid knowledge of the main concepts of General Physics (and some of modern physics), and the capability to apply this concepts for the understanding and resolution of simple scientific problems in physics. The student is required to be able to communicate in an effective and appropriate way his knowledge and his analysis of the physics problems addressed.
Contenuti The course covers the following topics: Introduction on Physics observables and some reminders on Mathematics. Mechanics: Kinematics, Dynamics of the point (outline of complex systems), Statics Electricity and Magnetism Waves, Optics, Acustic Fluidostatics, Fluidodynamics Radioactivity Radiation-matter interaction.
Testi di riferimento Giancoli, “Fisica. Principi e applicazioni” CEA Giambattista, "Fisica generale - Principi e applicazioni" McGraw-Hill Scannicchio, “Fisica Biomedica” EdiSES J.W. Kane, M.M. Sternheim, Fisica biomedica , Edizioni Mediche Scientifiche Internazionali
Obiettivi formativi The objective is to provide the students with a solid knowledge of the main concepts of General Physics, with some outline given to modern physics. These concepts are fundamental for the deep understanding of many of the phenomena in chemistry and in the involved instrumentations. The student will be able to analyze and resolve physics problems of medium/easy level. The student will have to communicate in an effective and appropriate way his knowledge.
Prerequisiti None
Metodi didattici The course is offered in the traditional way, with lectures and collective exercises. Slides, and occasionally videos and multimedia applications are used to assist the lectures. Many hours are devoted to problem solving. Several homeworks are proposed to the students in order to encourage their participation.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Midterm written test (optional, 3 groups of exercises/questions - 30-40 min) . Final written examination, with exercizes and questions on theory, open or multiple choice. The final written examination consists of 5 groups of exercises/questions to be completed in 50-70 min. Final oral examination optional.
Programma esteso Introduction on Physics observables and some reminders on Mathematics. Goniometric functions. Vectors algebra. Measurement significant figures. Fundamental and derived observables. Measurements units and SI System. Units conversion. Physics laws. Mechanics Reference frames. Velocity, acceleration. Motion (linear, accelerated, circular). Freely falling object. Newton's laws. Mass, force. Friction. Work and energy.Conservative and nonconservative forces. Mechanical energy and its conservation. Power. Linear momentum and its conservation. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Center of Mass. Rotational Motion: angular acceleration, torque and rotational inertia. Angular momentum and its conservation. Rigid objects motion. Static equilibrium. Simple harmonic motion. Elasticity. Dumped and forced oscillations: resonance. Electricity and magnetism Electric charge, Coulomb law, electric field and Gauss's law. Electric potential. Definition of electronvolt. Electric dipole and its characteristics. Dipole in a uniform electric field. Conductors and insulators. Capacitor and its properties. Capacitors in series and in parallel. Electric current. Resistance and resistivity. Ohm laws. Resistors in series and in parallel. Electric power. Joule effect. DC and AC simple electric circuits. Magnetic field. Lorentz force. Mass spectrograph.. Magnetic force on a wire with current. Magnetic fields induced by currents: straight wire, spire, solenoid. Magnetic dipole and its characteristics. Magnetic field flux. Faraday-Neumann-Lenz law. Electromagnetic waves. The frequency spectrum and the visible light. Photoelectric effect. Corpuscolar nature of light. Photon. X ray generation. X-ray tube. Waves,optics, acustic Characteristics of wave motion. Wave speed in a medium. Reflection and transmission. Interference. Standing waves. Refraction and diffraction. Sound characteristics. Intensity of sound: decibel. Sources of sound. Doppler effect. Doppler flow meter. The ray model of light and its behaviour.Young's experiment. Single slit diffraction. X rays and diffraction. Fluids Pressure, density. Pascal's principle. Hydrostatic pressure. Atmospheric pressure. Stevino's law. Archimedes' principle. Fluids in motion: equation of continuity. Bernoulli's law. Viscosity. Poiseuille's equation. Hydrodinamic resistance. Stokes' law. Sedimentation velovity. Radioactivity Outline on atomic structure. Nucleus properties: dimensions, mass, binding energy. Stability curve. Alfa, beta and gamma decays. Radioactive decay law. Mean lifetime and half life; activity. Radiation-matter interaction. Outline on charged particle, photons and neutrons interaction with matter. Biologic effects. Dose.
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Course CHIMICA GENERALE E INORGANICA
Course ID F0496
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader GIOVENZANA Giovanni Battista
Teachers Giovenzana Giovanni Battista
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 40
Individual study time 111
SSD CHIM/03 - CHIMICA GENERALE E INORGANICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Contenuti The matter: elementary particles, atoms, molecules and ions. Chemical formulas. Atomic structure and the periodic system of elements. Chemical bonds. Molecular structure. Valence, oxidation state, coordination number. Chemical reactions: classification and balancing. Thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant. Principles of kinetics. States of matter, phase transitions. Solutions: concentration, solubility. Aqueous solutions, pH, acids, bases, salts, buffers. Stoichiometry and solution equilibria. Electrochemistry. Principles of inorganic nomenclature. Chemistry of the elements. Radiochemistry and applications in medicine.
Testi di riferimento M.S. Silberberg. Chimica La Natura molecolare della materia e delle sue trasformazioni. McGraw Hill. ISBN 9788838667459. J.C. Kotz, P.M. Treichel, G. C. Weaver. Chimica. EdiSes ISBN 9788879597777.
Obiettivi formativi Aim of the course is the knowledge of the basic concepts of general and inorganic chemistry required to tackle the following topics of the degree course. Knowledge of the structure and properties of chemicals is required as is the ability to communicate the corresponding information Metodi didattici Lezione frontale con proiezione di slide, filmati e esercizi alla lavagna. Il materiale didattico (file pdf/ppt) utilizzato durante le lezioni sarà reso disponibile sulla piattaforma on-line agli studenti. Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento L’esame finale di Chimica Generale e Inorganica sarà organizzato in tre sezioni distinte: i) concetti generali; ii) previsione e calcolo di proprietà termodinamiche, cinetiche e di equilibrio; iii) chimica degli elementi e loro applicazioni. I punti i) e ii) coinvolgono la risposta a domande specifiche mentre per il punto ii) è prevista l’impostazione e la soluzione numerica di problemi chimico-fisici. Lo studente deve raggiungere una votazione simultanea di 6/10 in ogni sezione per il superamento dell’esame. Il voto finale sarà rappresentato dalla media pesata dei voti delle tre sezioni. Programma esteso La materia: particelle elementari, atomi, molecole, ioni. Modelli atomici, numeri quantici, orbitali, configurazione elettronica. Sistema periodico degli elementi. Composti chimici, formula chimica, peso atomico, molecolare e peso formula. Isotopi. Legame covalente, ionico, a idrogeno, metallico, interazioni intermolecolari. Struttura molecolare: geometria, ibridizzazione, orbitali molecolari, risonanza, formule di Lewis. Teoria VSEPR. Valenza, numero di ossidazione, numero di coordinazione. Principi di nomenclatura dei composti chimici inorganici. Stati di aggregazione della materia, definizione, proprietà e cambiamenti di stato. Le leggi dei gas. Reazioni chimiche. Bilanciamento di reazioni. Cenni di metrica chimica. Reazioni di ossidoriduzione e bilanciamento elettronico, potenziali di riduzione, cenni di elettrochimica, elettrolisi, pile. I principi della termodinamica e la loro applicazione alle reazioni chimiche. Entalpia, entropia e energia libera. Equilibri chimici. Costante di equilibrio, influenza della temperatura, principio di Le Chatelier. Principi di cinetica chimica, velocità di reazione, ordine di reazione. Soluzioni, definizione, principali espressioni della concentrazione, solubilità. Autoprotolisi dell’acqua, pH. Acidi, basi, sali, soluzioni tampone, ioni complessi. Principi di stechiometria e applicazioni al calcolo degli equilibri in soluzione. Chimica degli elementi: diffusione in natura ed estrazione, proprietà, impieghi industriali e rilevanza biologica. Principi di radiochimica e reazioni nucleari, applicazioni alla medicina. using a suitable and dedicated terminology. The student should be able to predict and calculate the behavior of chemical species, retrieving the necessary data and processing it properly, paying particular attention to aspects of special biological significance.
Prerequisiti Basic concepts of mathematics and physics.
Metodi didattici Classroom lessons (slides, movies and blackboard exercises). The course material (pdf/ppt files of slides) will be made available to the students in the online platform.
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The final exam of General and Inorganic Chemistry will be organized in three sections: i) general concepts; ii) prediction and calculation of thermodynamic, kinetic, equilibrium properties, iii) chemistry of the elements and their applications. Points i) and iii) will require answering to specific questions, while point ii) will require the resolution of physicochemical problems. The student must reach at least a 6/10 grade simultaneously in each section to pass the exam. The final grade will be represented by the weighted average of the grades of the three sections.
Programma esteso The matter: elementary particles, atoms, molecules and ions. Atomic models, quantum numbers, orbitals, electronic configuration and the periodic system of elements. Elements and compounds, chemical formulas, atomic weight, molecular weight, formula weight. Isotopes. Covalent bond, ionic bond, hydrogen bond, metallic bond, intermolecular interactions. Molecular structure: geometry, hybridization, molecular orbitals, resoncance, Lewis structures. VSEPR theory. Valence, oxidation state, coordination number. Principles of inorganic chemistry nomenclature. States of matter, definitions and properties, phase transitions. Gas laws. Chemical reactions: classification and balancing. Basics of chemical metrics. Redox reactions, definition, balancing methods, reduction potential, basics of electrochemistry, electrolysis, batteries. Principles of thermodynamics and application to chemical reactions. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Chemical equilibria. Equilibrium constant, influence of the temperature, Le Châtelier principle. Principles of kinetics, reaction rate, reaction order. Solutions: definition, concentration, solubility. Water self-ionisation, pH. Acids, bases, salts, buffers, coordination complexes. Stoichiometry and application to solution equilibria. Chemistry of the elements: natural abundance and sources, properties, industrial applications and biological relevance. Principles of radiochemistry and nuclear reactions, applications to medicine.
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Course ABILITA' INFORMATICHE
Course ID F0506
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader SALERNO Thomas
Teachers Salerno Thomas
CFU 1
Individual study time 13
SSD INF/01 - INFORMATICA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category F
Year 1
Period Primo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type G
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Contenuti Structure of the exam. Introduction to the course. What is a computer. Hardware: Internal components of a computer motherboard , CPU , memory ( RAM and hard disk) Hardware: Interfaces and Peripherals . Capacitive screens and resistive screens . Input and output devices Software: operating systems and application programs . The PC and file management. Computer viruses: what they are and how to treat them . ( 2h ) Software : word processing ( 2h ) Software : spreadsheet, and presentation tools ( 2h ) Internet , Web , identity and reputation ( 2h ) Online transactions and security ( 2h ) Latest analysis and IT innovations ( 2h )
Testi di riferimento All the reference material is posted on the DIR website
Obiettivi formativi The aim of the course is to provide information and methodologies to beginners for the use of PC and useful software packages to produce reports and theses .
Prerequisiti None
Metodi didattici Lectures are given in a standard classroom , slides and videos are available for download
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Computer test with multiple choice questions . The assessment gives rise to pass/no pass evaluation .
Programma esteso Structure of the exam. Introduction to the course. What is a computer. Hardware: Internal components of a computer motherboard , CPU , memory ( RAM and hard disk) Hardware: Interfaces and Peripherals . capacitive screens and resistive screens . input and output devices Software: operating systems and application programs . The PC and file management. Computer viruses: what they are and how to treat them . ( 2h ) Software : word processing ( 2h ) Software : spreadsheet, and presentation tools ( 2h ) Internet , Web , identity and reputation ( 2h ) Online transactions and security ( 2h ) Latest analysis and IT innovations ( 2h )
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Course -FISIOLOGIA GENERALE
Course ID F0499
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader DISTASI Carla
Teachers Distasi Carla
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 119
SSD BIO/09 - FISIOLOGIA
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Secondo Semestre
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi At the end of the course, the student will acquire basic knowledge of how cells, organs and systems work. The student will then be able to face the molecular, cellular and integrative study of pathology and pharmacology, as it will be able to understand the origin of dysfunction and disease and the rationale of the drug therapies associated with them.
Contenuti This course deals with the functioning of the human body at all levels and introduces the fundamental principles of cell physiology, homeostasis, and control mechanisms in mammals. Covers the basics of human physiology including the cellular functions involved with membrane transport and cell signaling, electrical activity of the cells, muscle contraction as well as the basic functions of human nervous, endocrine, digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory and urinary system.
Testi di riferimento 1) D’ANGELO, PERES A. Fisiologia, volume unico (edizione 2011) , Edi-ermes 2) SILVERTHORN DU, Fisiologia Umana,Pearson 3) STANFIELD C.L. Fisiologia (edizione 2012), EdiSes
Obiettivi formativi The course aims to provide the basics of cell physiology and the physiology of organs and systems. Students will acquire the knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms associated with the functioning of cells, tissues, organs and apparatus in the human body. They will be able to expose the contents of the course in a logical and comprehensive way, with good mastery of the scientific language, by linking the various topics. They will be able to apply knowledge to pharmacological and technological disciplines in order to understand the action of the drugs and biomolecules
Prerequisiti Fundamentals of anatomy, biology, chemistry and physics.
Metodi didattici Conventional lectures
Altre informazioni
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento Learning will be verified through a written exam which will take place in the computer room and will consist of 30 closed questions and an essay question. Multiple choice questions, true / false questions, completion type questions and matching type questions are the most frequent types of test questions. The test is aimed at assessing the acquired knowledge and understanding. The essay question is also aimed verifying student's communicative and expressive skills.Written test evaluation criteria:True / False Questions: 1 point for correct answer; -1 point for wrong answer; 0 points not responding.Multiple choice questions: 1 point for correct answer; - 0.5 points for the wrong answer if the question allows you to choose from three options, -0.33 between four, -0.25 out of five, etc .; 0 points not responding.Open Question: 0-3 points.Question by correspondence: 1 point for correct answer; if the answer is only partially correct, a score <1 will be assigned proportionally to the correct matches; 0 points not responding.Other typologies: 1 point for correct answer; 0 points not responding.If the written exam has been successful (minimum mark: 18/30), students can ask for an oral exam (optional). In this case the final grade will be obtained as the mean of oral and written grade.
Programma esteso Cell physiology: cellular membranes and transmembrane transports. Carriers, pumps and channels. Endocytosis, exocytosis. Membrane potentials and action potentials. Contraction of skeletal muscle. Excitation of skeletal muscle: neuromuscular transmission and excitation-contraction coupling. Contraction and excitation of smooth muscle. The nervous system. General principles and sensory physiology. Organization of the nervous system, functions of synapses. Sensory receptors, neuronal circuits for processing information. Somatic sensations: the tactile and position senses. Pain and thermal sensations. Motor and integrative neurophysiology. The cord reflexes The autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla. Autonomics reflexes. Cardiac muscle: the heart as a pump and function of the heart muscles. Rhythmical excitatory and conductive system of the heart. The normal electrocardiogram. Cardiac output, venous return, and their regulation. The circulation: pressure, flow, and resistance. Vascular distensibility and functions of the arterial and venous systems. The microcirculation and lymphatic system: capillary fluid exchange, interstitial fluid, and lymph flow Nervous regulation of the circulation, and rapid control of arterial pressure. Blood cells and blood coagulation. Kidneys: glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, and their control. Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Urine concentration and dilution; regulation of extracellular fluid osmolarity and sodium concentration. Renal regulation of potassium, calcium, phosphate, and magnesium; integration of renal mechanisms for control of blood volume and extracellular fluid volume. Acid-base regulation. Respiration. Pulmonary ventilation. Pulmonary circulation, pleural fluid. Physical principles of gas exchange; diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood and tissue fluids. Regulation of respiration. Gastrointestinal physiology motility, nervous control, and blood circulation. Propulsion and mixing of food in the alimentary canal. Secretory functions of the alimentary tract. Digestion and absoprtion. Body temperature regulation. Endocrinology. Pituitary hormones and their control by the hypopthalamus. Thyroid metabolic hormones. Adenocortical hormones. Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, calcium and phosphate metabolism, vitamin D.
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Course Microbiologia generale
Course ID FA0022
Academic Year 2017/2018
Year of rule 2017/2018
Degree CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE
Curriculum CORSO GENERICO
Teaching leader FRACCHIA Letizia
Teachers Fracchia Letizia
CFU 7
Teaching duration (hours) 56
Individual study time 119
SSD BIO/19 - MICROBIOLOGIA GENERALE
Course type Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Course mandatoriety OBB
Course category A
Year 1
Period Annuale
Site NOVARA
Frequenza obbligatoria 1
Grading type V
Lingua insegnamento Italian
Risultati di apprendimento attesi KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: At the end of the course, the student will acquire theoretical knowledge and understanding about the biology of microorganisms, in particular the structure and functions of the prokaryotic cells components, their genetics and the basic understanding of the most important classes of reactions of the microbial metabolism. Knowledge will also be acquired about the interaction of organisms with the natural environment; in particular, the effects of physical, chemical and nutritional factors on microbial growth and the response to abiotic stress will be understood. An additional educational objective of the course is the understanding of the main microorganism/host interaction mechanisms, the phenomena at the origin of microbial pathogenicity and of innate and acquired host resistance to infections; basic knowledge will also be acquired about the major mechanisms of action of the most important classes of antimicrobial drugs and the resistance mechanisms implemented by pathogenic microorganisms. The course also provides theoretical insights relating to the manipulation of microorganisms (isolation, propagation in culture, selective and differential media, conservation and sterility concept), the microbiological diagnostics, the control of their growth (sterilization methods, treatment with disinfecting agents), their quantification and identification, including the resolution of short exercises and problems in the classroom. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: At the end of the course the student will acquire both the theoretical knowledge and the instruments concerning the application of some of the principal methods for cultivation, enumeration and identification of microorganisms, and will be able to solve simple problems related to microbial counting and to the preparation of culture media and solutions for microbiological use. MAKING JUDGEMENTS, COMMUNICATION AND LEARNING SKILLS: Finally, the student must demonstrate to have acquired independence of judgment on the different topics addressed during the course, knowledge of their possible applications and repercussions in other scientific fields and skills regarding the verbal and written communication through the use of an appropriate technical and scientific language and of a correct microbiological terminology.
Contenuti The course is composed of two parts. The first part, carried out during the first semester, is focused on the following topics: - Structure and function of the prokaryotic cell - Kinetic of microbial growth - Nutritional requirements of bacteria - Environmental effects on microbial growth - Cultivation of bacteria in the laboratory - Control of microbial growth - Duplication and expression of the prokaryotic genome - Horizontal gene transfer The second part, carried out during the second semester, addresses the following themes: - Features of microbial metabolism - Virus: structure and replication cycle of bacterial and animal viruses - Human-microorganism interaction: colonization and virulence factors - Non-specific and specific host defence mechanisms - The artificial active immunization - Antimicrobial drugs: mechanisms of action and resistance
Testi di riferimento - Brock Biology of Microorganisms (14th Edition) Published by Benjamin Cummings, 2014 ISBN-13: 978-0321897398
Obiettivi formativi The course aims to provide students with adequate information and basic knowledge on the biology of microorganisms from the point of view of cellular, metabolic and genetic organization, on the peculiarities of these aspects and on the similarities with other living beings. The course will also give students the basic knowledge about the positive and harmful interactions between microorganism and host, the pathogenic activity of microorganisms in general and of some important pathogens in particular, and about the host non-specific and specific defense mechanisms. The structure and replication mechanisms of the principal bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) and animal viruses will be also studied. Finally, the course aims to give students an adequate knowledge of the mechanisms of action of the major antibacterial drugs. The course also provides theoretical insights relating to the manipulation of microorganisms (isolation, propagation in culture, selective and differential media, conservation and sterility concept), the control of their growth (sterilization methods, treatment with disinfecting agents), their quantification and identification, including the resolution of short exercises and problems in the classroom. At the end of the course, the student will acquire theoretical knowledge and understanding about the biology of microorganisms, in particular the structure and functions of the prokaryotic cells components, their genetics and the basic understanding of the most important classes of reactions of the microbial metabolism. Knowledge will also be acquired about the interaction of organisms with the natural environment; in particular, the effects of physical, chemical and nutritional factors on microbial growth and the response to abiotic stress will be understood. An additional educational objective of the course is the understanding of the main microorganism/host interaction mechanisms, the phenomena at the origin of microbial pathogenicity and of innate and acquired host resistance to infections; basic knowledge will also be acquired about the major mechanisms of action of the most important classes of antimicrobial drugs and the resistance mechanisms implemented by pathogenic microorganisms. At the end of the course the student will acquire both the theoretical knowledge and the instruments concerning the application of some of the principal methods for cultivation, enumeration and identification of microorganisms, and will be able to solve simple problems related to microbial counting and to the preparation of culture media and solutions for microbiological use. Finally, the student must demonstrate to have acquired independence of judgment on the different topics addressed during the course, knowledge of their possible applications and repercussions in other scientific fields and skills regarding the verbal and written communication through the use of an appropriate technical and scientific language.
Prerequisiti Basic knowledge of the structure and of the principal functions of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell
Metodi didattici The course consists of lectures with slides show. Some topics will be deepened with videos in English and Italian. Topics of particular interest and relevance will be examined with the reading of scientific publications.
Altre informazioni The slides of the lectures and additional material are available on the website “Didattica in Rete”: https://www.dir.uniupo.it/
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento The exam consists of a written test with multiple choice questions (with only one true answer), true/false questions, questions with omitted words, matching words questions and open questions covering all the topics. In particular, the questions will be equally distributed on the two main parts of the course, the first concerning the structure, function, growth and cultivation of microorganisms, the second concerning metabolism, microorganism/host interaction, viruses, antimicrobial drugs. The score assigned to each question will depend on the difficulty and will be specified in the text of the examination. Unanswered or incorrect questions will be given a score of 0. For the open questions, the ability to answer using a suitable technical-scientific language will be also evaluated.
Programma esteso - Structure and function of the bacterial cell Structural morphology and size of the bacterial cell The cell membrane: structure, function; transport systems The cell wall of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Gram staining - Microbial locomotion Flagella, gliding motility, chemotaxis, phototaxis and others - The surface structures and intracellular inclusions Fimbriae, pili, capsules, reserve materials, cytoplasmic inclusions, gas vesicles Endospores -The microbial metabolism: Glycolysis Respiration and electron transport chain The proton motive force The aerobic and anaerobic respiration Main types of fermentation The citric acid cycle The anabolism: the biosynthesis of key monomers Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan -The structure of DNA and DNA replication - Nutritional types of bacteria - Environmental effects on microbial growth Temperature, pH, oxygen. - Cultivation of microorganisms in the laboratory Sterilization and disinfection Complex, selective and/or differential culture media; autoclave sterilization The aseptic technique (isolation of pure culture) Identification of a bacterial strain by biochemical methods - Microbial growth The binary fission The growth cycle of a bacterial population (the growth curve) Continuous-culture: the chemostat system Direct evaluation of microbial growth: viable-cell count The indirect methods (turbidity measurement) Evaluation of the microbial biomass, chemical analysis of a cell component. - The microbial biofilms Growth and biological functions - Principles of molecular biology of microorganisms Synthesis and processing of RNA, protein synthesis - Genetic of microorganisms Transformation Generalized and specialized transduction Plasmids Conjugation Hfr conjugation and chromosomal transfer -Control of microbial growth Sterilization and disinfection: chemical and physical methods for the control of microbial growth - Principles of virology Viruses and virions General properties of viruses (viral structure and classification) Bacteriophages: virulent phages (phage T4), temperate phages (lambda phage) The animal viruses: retroviruses, DNA viruses, RNA (+) and RNA (-) viruses Growth and quantification of bacterial and animal viruses - Interactions host-microorganism Positive and egative interactions between microorganisms and human Virulence factors and bacterial toxins (exotoxins and endotoxins) - Nonspecific host defenses - Specific host defenses The immune response Antigens, T cells and cellular immunity Antibodies and immunity Humoral and cell-mediated immunity - The artificial active immunization Vaccines - Artificial passive immunization (outline) Immune sera, immunoglobulins - Antimicrobial drugs The spectrum of antimicrobial activity Mechanisms of action of antimicrobial drugs Overview of the most common antimicrobial drugs Mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial drugs
Course borrowed from FARMACIA (1506) - FA0004 Microbiologia generale - NOVARA
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Year Course ID Course Teachers SSD Curriculum Site CFU
1 FA0021 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND METHODS IN DRUGS ANALYSIS Massarotti Alberto CHIM/08 All NOVARA 5
1 F0506 COMPUTER SKILLS Salerno Thomas INF/01 All NOVARA 1
1 F0507 ENGLISH Brady Bernadette Catherine L-LIN/12 All NOVARA 3
1 F0496 GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Giovenzana Giovanni Battista CHIM/03 All NOVARA 7
1 FA0022 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY Fracchia Letizia BIO/19 All NOVARA 7
1 F0499 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY Distasi Carla BIO/09 All NOVARA 7
1 F0341 HUMAN ANATOMY Bosetti Michela BIO/16 All NOVARA 6
1 F0338 MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS Rinaldi Maurizio MAT/04 All NOVARA 7
1 FA0023 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I Appendino Giovanni Battista CHIM/06 All NOVARA 5
1 F0339 PHYSICS Arcidiacono Roberta FIS/07 All NOVARA 5
1 F0501 PLANT AND ANILMAL BIOLOGY Moro Laura BIO/13 All NOVARA 7
2 FA0099 APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY Rossi Franca BIO/10 All NOVARA 8
2 FA0025 BIOCHEMISTRY Rizzi Menico BIO/10 All NOVARA 8
2 FA0028 Chimica, tecnologia e contaminanti degli alimenti Arlorio Marco, Locatelli Monica CHIM/10 All NOVARA 7
2 FA0026 DRUG ANALYSIS I Sorba Giovanni, Tron Gian Cesare, Allegrone Gianna CHIM/08 All NOVARA 6
2 FA0093 Organic Chemistry 2 and Heterocyclic Chemistry Panza Luigi, Appendino Giovanni Battista CHIM/06 All NOVARA 9
2 F0417 PATHOLOGY (MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY) Sica Antonio, Porta Chiara MED/04 All NOVARA 8
2 F0428 PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOTHERAPY Lombardi Grazia BIO/14 All NOVARA 6
2 F0592 STATISTIC WITH R Rinaldi Maurizio MAT/04 All 2
3 FA0056 ADVANCED SYNTHETIC METHODS Panza Luigi CHIM/06 All NOVARA 2
3 FA0036 Advanced Methods in Toxicological Chemical Analysis Allegrone Gianna CHIM/08 All NOVARA 5
3 FA0030 Analysis of Drugs II Grosa Giorgio CHIM/08 All NOVARA 8
3 FA0031 Biologia molecolare con laboratorio Rossi Franca BIO/11 All NOVARA 6
3 FA0027 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY Condorelli Fabrizio, Genazzani Armando BIO/14 All NOVARA 10
3 FA0029 Pharmaceutical Chemistry And Drug Design I Tron Gian Cesare, Massarotti Alberto CHIM/08 All NOVARA 12
3 FA0032 Pharmaceutical Technology and Legislation I Pattarino Franco CHIM/09 All NOVARA 10
3 FA0096 Spectroscopic Methods in Organic Chemistry Panza Luigi CHIM/06 All NOVARA 7
3 FA0039 Tossicologia e laboratorio di farmacologia Genazzani Armando BIO/14 All NOVARA 6
4 FA0056 ADVANCED SYNTHETIC METHODS Panza Luigi CHIM/06 All NOVARA 2
4 FA0036 Advanced Methods in Toxicological Chemical Analysis Allegrone Gianna CHIM/08 All NOVARA 5
4 FA0046 Biologia strutturale + Farmacologia preclinica e clinica Genazzani Armando BIO/10, BIO/14 All NOVARA 15
4 FA0037 Experimental Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy Grilli Mariagrazia BIO/14 All NOVARA 15
4 FA0043 Food Biotechnologies + Food Analysis and Quality Control Arlorio Marco, Coisson Jean Daniel, Locatelli Monica CHIM/10 All NOVARA 15
4 FA0063 PHARMACEUTICAL POLICY AND LEGISLATION De Rosa Mauro BIO/14 All NOVARA 3
4 FA0035 Pharmaceutical Chemistry And Drug Design II Sorba Giovanni, Tron Gian Cesare CHIM/08 All NOVARA 11
4 FA0033 Pharmaceutical Technology and Legislation II Giovannelli Lorella CHIM/09 All NOVARA 10
4 FA0038 Release and Targeting of Bioactive Substances Pattarino Franco CHIM/09 All NOVARA 5
4 F0504 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY OF SYNTHETIC MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY Panza Luigi CHIM/06, CHIM/08 All NOVARA 15
4 F0592 STATISTIC WITH R Rinaldi Maurizio MAT/04 All NOVARA 2
4 FA0040 Technology Aspects and Regulation of Medicinal Products Pattarino Franco CHIM/09, SECS-P/07 All NOVARA 15
4 FA0039 Tossicologia e laboratorio di farmacologia Genazzani Armando BIO/14 All NOVARA 6
5 FA0056 ADVANCED SYNTHETIC METHODS Panza Luigi CHIM/06 All NOVARA 2
5 FA0237 Chimica degli isoprenoidi bioattivi Appendino Giovanni Battista CHIM/06 All NOVARA 2
5 F0421 FINAL EXAM PROFIN_S All 30
5 F0068 INTERNSHIP NN All 30
5 FA0063 PHARMACEUTICAL POLICY AND LEGISLATION De Rosa Mauro BIO/14 All NOVARA 3
5 F0592 STATISTIC WITH R Rinaldi Maurizio MAT/04 All NOVARA 2
Data synched: 09/07/2019, 13:56